Chapter 1 (Part 2)

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Chapter 1 (Part 2)
2015-08-31 04:20:51
Med physio
Med physio
CH 1
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  1. Resting membrane potential 
    which kinds of cells
    potential diff that exist across membrane of EXCITABLE cells (muscle/neuron cells)
  2. What is the range cells like to be at? Close/far to which ions?
    • -70 and -80 mV
    • close to Cl and K 
    • far from Na and Ca
  3. How does a cell get excited?
    • by moving the potential (+/-) 
    • more permeable the great you change the RMP
  4. Chord conductance equation
    evaluates the contribution of each ion
  5. How can you calculate contribution of each ion
    Nernst or Goldmans
  6. What is action potential?
    excitable cells of RAPID DEPOLARIZATION (upstroke) then REPOLARIZATION
  7. What are the characteristics of AP
    • size and shape 
    • propagation 
    • all-or-nothing response
  8. What is depolarization?
    making the MP less negative (more +)
  9. What is hyperpolarization?
    making the MP more negative
  10. What is inward current?
    + charge INTO the cell -> depolarizes MP
  11. What is outward current?
    + charge OUT of cell -> hyperpolarization MP
  12. What is threshold potential?
    the MP becomes excitable by the current and it fires at a certain point
  13. What is overshoot?
    • moving ions in/out =overshoot
    • the MP in cell interior is suppose to be - but it turns + because of too much
  14. What is undershoot?
    cells went back to rest (it is -)
  15. What is the refractory period?
    cell not capable of anything until it recovers
  16. Nerve Na channel AP
    integral membrane protein means that it is activated by two ways (IG and AG)
  17. In Na channel which gates is open/close?
    • Activation is closed 
    • Inactivation is open
  18. What is absolute RP?
    depolarization happens and nothing else will happen
  19. What is relative RP
    only if excitation is way more positive than when it was initially given in what it has to overcome
  20. What is accommodation?
    • holds cell in a depolarized state 
    • shuts back down->never reaches AP
  21. Conduction velocity is influenced by what?
    • time-how quickly is depolarizes 
    • length-how far a current will spread
  22. What changes occur in conduction velocity?
    • resistance (inhibits or promotes movement)
    • capacitance (can membrane respond approp)
    • How long will it take to get from head to toe
  23. What increases resistance?
    • myelination 
    • increase depolarization much quicker 
    • capacitance makes it goes faster bc of jumping
  24. What are the empty spaces on nerves?
    • Nodes of Ranvier and "jump" instead of going through 
    • AKA saltatory conduction
  25. What does demyelination cause?
    decrease in conduction velocity
  26. Excitable cells reach synapse (new areas) how?
    some will reach destination by chemical or electrical
  27. If synapse is reached by electrical it has what?
    gap junctions
  28. At what rate are electrical synapses? Direction?
    • very fast 
    • simultaneous conduction (cell-to-cell)
  29. Where are electrical synapses found?
    • in the heart
    • some smooth muscle
  30. If synapse is reached by chemical it has what?
    synaptic cleft -> neurotransmitter
  31. At what rate are chemical synapses? Direction
    • synaptic delay, slow 
    • unidirectional
  32. Where are chemical synapses found?
    • in the muscle 
    • neuromuscular junction (a nerve connected to a muscle)
    • activates a skeletal muscle
  33. What is a motor neuron?
    • turns on the motor and the 
    • acriavtes nerve to tell neruon
  34. What links Choline and Acetyl CoA
    • an enzyme esterase 
    • synthesis and degradation of ACh
    • Choline needs to be brought back into nerve to make more ACh
  35. What are the types of synaptic arrangements?
    • one-to-one (1 nerve to 1 muscle) 
    • one-to-many (entire region get amplified, uncommon) 
    • many-to-one (most common, summut)
  36. Synaptic input (Excitatory postsynaptic potentials)
    • work at Ach level
    • Always make the next thing turn on 
    • excitatory at the postsynaptic potential
    • happen on the membrane on the other side
  37. Synaptic input (Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials)
  38. What kind of integration synaptic types are there? (multiple inputs)
    • spatial-2+ arrive at postsyn cell at SAME SPACE
    • temporal-2+ arrive at post syn cell at SAME TIME
  39. What is long term potentiation
    alter the nerve (so long so many times)
  40. What is synaptic fatigue
    needs to go to recovery no matter how many times its poked
  41. Ach is the only NT where? Which cells
    • NMJ
    • All preganglionic cells in parasym and symp NS
    • most postganglionic cells
  42. Everything that is autonomic has how many relays?
  43. Which are the only postganglionic cells that do not use ACh?
    sweat glands
  44. What are the catacholamines? Where are the derived from?
    • NE, E 
    • Dopamine
  45. What do all 3 have in common?
    they are made from the AA Tyrosine
  46. How to turn off (degrade) Dopamine, NE and E?
    • MAO
    • COMT
    • MAO+COMT
  47. Where does Serotonin come from?
  48. What is serotonin a precursor for?
  49. What are other neurotransmitters?
    • histamine
    • glutamine 
    • glycine
  50. Which NT are AAs?
    glutamine and glycine
  51. Which type of NT is Histamine?
    biogenic amine
  52. Which NT is the major excitatory NT in the CNS?
  53. Ionotrophic receptor means what?
    • have to wait for the right ion to activate
    • has ion
  54. Metabotropic receptor means what?
    • AGT/AGTP 
    • has ligand
  55. Glycine is what kind of NT unlike the others
    • Inhibitory
    • brainstem and spinal cord
  56. GABA is the transmitter to find which receptors?
    • GABA-A (Cl channel ionotrophic) Benzos and barbiturates
    • GABA-B (K+/G protein) metabotrophic
  57. What is disease is GABA highly linked to
    Huntingtons disease
  58. Nitric oxide (NO)
    short-acting inhibitory in CNS and GI tract
  59. Neuropeptides have what 3 kind
    • neuromodulators- modulate presynaptic cells 
    • neurohormones- secrete blood 
    • neuropeptide- syn in nerve cell body
  60. What are the thick filament of muscle called? They create what?
    • myosin (heavy/light chains)
    • heads/tails
  61. What are the thin filaments of muscle called? They create what?
    • actins (globular) 
    • tropomyosin and troponin
  62. What needs to happen to the two filaments
    actin needs to touch myosin for contraction to take place
  63. What is considered one contraction
    Z-Z (one sarcomere) for a contraction to occur
  64. What is stored in the sarcoplasmic reticulum?
  65. What are the Ca releasing channels on SR?
    Ryanodine receptor