Anatomy and Physiology

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mustangtyra
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30705
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Anatomy and Physiology
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2010-08-25 12:35:03
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Anatomy Physiology Lab Final
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Anatomy and Physiology Lab Final Chapters 20, 26, and 28
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  1. small organs associated with lymphatic vessels are termed_________________.
    lymph nodes
  2. The pancreas is not a lymphatic structure?
    True
  3. The distal portion of the small intestine contains clumps of lymph follicles called_____________.
    Peyer's patches
  4. Both lymph and blood flow are heavily dependant on ______________.
    Skeletal muscle contractions and differences in thoracic pressures due to respiratory movement
  5. The thymus is most active during ______________.
    Childhood
  6. Which lymphatic structure drains lymph from the right upper limb and the right side of the head and thorax?
    Thoracic duct
  7. What effect does age have on size of the thymus?
    The thymus initially increases in size and then decreases in size from adolescence through old age
  8. The lymphatic capillaries are___________.
    more permeable than blood capillaries
  9. Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are releases by _____________.
    Plasma cells
  10. Lymph leaves a node via _________________.
    efferent lymphatic vessels
  11. Which cells become immunocompotent due to thymic hormones?
    lymphocytes
  12. When the lymphatic structures are blocked due to tumors, the result is ______________.
    Severe localized edema distal to the blockage
  13. Lymph transport depends on the movement of of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles?
    True
  14. T cells are the only form of lymphocytes found in lymphoid tissue?
    True
  15. Lymphoid tissue that appears as a swelling of the mucosa in the oral cavity is called a(n) ________________.
    Tonsil
  16. The thymus is not a mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue?
    True
  17. Peyer's pathces are found in the _______________.
    ileum of the small intestine
  18. Lymph capillaries are absent in all but which of the following?
    A) bones and teeth
    B) CNS
    C) bone marrow
    D) digestive organs
    D) digestive organs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. What is bubo?
    an infected lymph node
  20. The thymus is the only lymphoid organ that does not:
    directly fight antigens
  21. Large clusters of lymph nodes occur in all of the following locations except the ___________.
    lower extremities
  22. Functions of the spleen do not include_____________.
    forming crypts that trap bacteria
  23. B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood?
    True
  24. Digestive tract-associated lymphatic tissue includes all of the following except_____________.
    A) islets of Langerhans
    B) lingual tonsils
    C) Peyer's patches
    D) palatine tonsils
    A) islets of Langerhans
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Which of the following is not a method that maintains lymph flow?
    Smoth muscle contraction
  26. The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the __________________.
    Lingual tonsils
  27. Which of the following is not a normal component of lymph?
    A) plasma proteins
    B) red blood cells
    C) water
    D) ions
    B) red blood cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. A sentinal node is _________.
    the first node to recieve lymph from an area suspected to be cancerous
  29. Which of the following are functions of lymphoid tissue?
    A) house and provide a proliferation site for lymphocytes
    B) house and provide a proliferation site for neutrophils
    C) furnish an ideal surveillance vantage point for lymphocytes and macrophages
    D) A and C
    D) A and C
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic system?
    A) transporting dietary fats
    B) transporting respiratory gases
    C) draining excess interstitial fluid
    D) carrying out immune responses
    B) transporting respiratory gases
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Which of the following is not a function of lymph nodes?
    A) produce lymph fluid and cerebro-spinal fluid
    B) act as lymph filters and activate the immune system
    C) produce lymphoid cells and granular WBC's
    D) serve as antigen surveillance areas
    A) produce lymph fluid and cerebro-spinal fluid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. The bodies water volume is closely tied to the level of which of the following ions?
    A) calcium ions
    B) sodium ions
    C) potassium ions
    D) hydrogen ions
    B) sodium ions
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. The term hypotonic hydration refers to _____________.
    a condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extrordinary amounts of water
  34. Hypoproteinemia is a condition of unusually low levels of plasma proteins. This problem is often characterized by __________________.
    tissue edema
  35. Which of the following hormones is important in the regulation of sodium ion concentrations in the extra-cellular fluid?
    A) erythropoietin
    B) antidiuretic hormone
    C) renin
    D) aldosterone
    D) aldosterone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that is made in the atria of the heart. The influence of this hormone is to ________________.
    reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention
  37. Respiratory acidosis can occur when ________________.
    a persnos breathing is shallow due to obstruction
  38. Which of the following two organs function as the most important physiological buffer systems?
    A) the stomach and the liver
    B) the lungs and the kidneys
    C) the adrenal glands and the testes
    D) the thyroid gland and the heart
    B) the lungs and the kidneys
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Which of the choices below is not an essential role of salts in the body?
    A) neuromuscular activity
    B) secretory activity
    C) anabolism of proteins
    D) membrane permeability
    C) anabolism of proteins
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. The fluid link between the external and internal enviroment is ________________.
    Plasma
  41. Newborn infants have a relatively higher ___________ content in their ECF than do adults.
    sodium
  42. Although sodium is mainly found in the extracellular fluid, most __________ is found in the intracellular fluid.
    Potassium
  43. Which of the following describes the distribution of sodium and potassium between cells and body fluids?
    A) equal amounts of each ion in the cels and body fluids
    B) Na+ mainly in the cells, K+ in the body fluids
    C) K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluids
    D) little of either in the cells, but large amounts of each in the body fluids
    C) K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluids
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. problems with fluid, and acid-base balance are particularly common in infants because of their _____________.
    inefficient kidneys
  45. The single most important factor influencing potassium ion secretion is ________________.
    Potassium ion concentration in blood plasma
  46. The term alkaline reserve is used to describe the ___________ buffer system.
    bicarbonate
  47. A falling blood pH and a rising partial pressure of carbon dioxide due to pneumonia or emphysema indicates______________.
    Metabolic alkalosis
  48. The movement of fluids between cellular compartments ___________.
    Is regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forces
  49. What hormone reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasoconstriction and sodium ion and water retention?
    atrial natriuretic peptide
  50. Which of the following is not a method for regulating the hydrogen ion concentration in blood?
    A) diet
    B) renal mechanism
    C) chemical buffer system
    D) respiratory changes
    A) diet
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. Which of the following is not a chamical buffer system?
    A) phosphate
    B) nucleic acid
    C) protein
    D) bicarbonate
    B) nucleic acid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. Extracellular fluid in the human body is composed of all of the following except____________.
    A) blood plasma
    B) cerebrospinal fluid
    C) lymph and interstitial fluid
    D) glucose
    D) glucose
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts?
    True
  54. Which of the following hormones is important in stimulating water conservation in the kidneys?
    A) antidiuretic hormone
    B) atrial natriuretic peptide
    C) thymosin
    D) aldosterone
    A) antidiuretic hormone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. The maintenance of the proper pH of the body fluids may be the result of _____________.
    The control of respiratory ventilation
  56. Which of the following is not a disorder of water balance?
    A) hypotonic hydration, in which sodium content is normal but water content is high
    B) excessive hydration due to excess ADH secretion
    C) edema or tissue swelling, which is usually due to an increased capillary hydrostatic pressure
    D) excess water in interstitial spaces due to a low level of plasma proteins
    B) excessive hydration due to excess ADH secretion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. The regulation of sodium ______________.
    is linked to blood pressure
  58. Kidney tubule cells are able to synthesize bicarbonate ion?
    True
  59. Blood analysis indicates low pH, and patient is breathing rapidly. Given your knowledge of acid-base balance, which of the following is most likely?
    A) respiratory acidosis
    B) metabolic acidosis
    C) metabolic alkalosis
    D) respiratory alkalosis
    B) metabolic acidosis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. A patient is breathing slowly and blood pH analysis indicates an abnormally high value. What is the likely diagnosis?
    metabolic alkalosis
  61. One of the major physiological factors that triggers thirst is ___________.
    a rise in plasma osmolality
  62. Annie has just eaten a large order of heavily salted french fries, some pickled eggs, and some cheese. How will consuming this much salt affect her physiology?
    There will be a temporary increase in in blood volume
  63. The most important force causing net water flow across capillary walls is ______________.
    hydrostatic pressure of capillary blood
  64. Which of the following does not depend on the presence of electrolytes?
    A) neuromuscular excitability
    B) membrane polarity
    C) amount of body fat
    D) maintenance of osmotic relations between cells and ECF
    C) amount of body fat
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  65. The regulation of potassium balance ___________.
    involves aldosterone-induced secretion of potassium
  66. Cells on the dorsal surface of the two-layered embryonic disc migrate to form a raised groove known as the ____________.
    primitive streak
  67. The result of polyspermy in humans is____________.
    a nonfunctional zygote
  68. It is impossible for sperm to be functional (able to fertilize the egg) until after _______________.
    they undergo capacitation
  69. Milk ejection or letdown reflex is stimulated by which of the following hormones associated with pregnancy?
    A) gonadotropin
    B) inhibin
    C) oxytocin
    D) prolactin
    C) oxytocin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  70. Estrogen and progesterone maintain the integrity of the uterine lining and prepare the mammary glands to secrete milk. Which of the following structures makes this possible during the first three months of pregnancy?
    A) corona radiata
    B) the amnion
    C) corpus luteum
    D) the chorion
    C) corpus luteum
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  71. The placenta, a vitally important metabolic organ, is made up of a contribution from mother and fetus. which portion is from the fetus?
    Chorion
  72. Which of the following is not a germ layer?
    A) epiderm
    B) endoderm
    C) mesoderm
    D) ectoderm
    A) epiderm
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  73. The formation of endodermal and ectodermal germ layers occurs at _______________.
    gastrulation
  74. Which hormone maintains the viability of the corpus luteum?
    human chorionic gonadotropin
  75. Which of the following is a highly unlikely method of producing a child?
    A) ectopic implantation
    B) gamete intrafallopian transfer
    C) in vitro fertilzation
    D) embryo transfer
    A) ectopic implantation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  76. Implantation involves _______________.
    embedding of the blastocyst in the uterine wall
  77. The umbilical arteris carry ______________.
    waste products to the placenta
  78. The correct sequence o preembryonic structures is _______________.
    zygote, morula, blastocyst
  79. Temperature is not assessed as part of the apgar score?
    False
  80. Hormones concerned with events of lactation include ___________.
    oxytocin
  81. Onset of labor may be a result of all of the following factors except _____________.
    A) high estrogen levels
    B) aspirin and similar drugs
    C) secretion of oxytocin
    D) concentration-related increased emotional and physical stress
    B) aspirin and similar drugs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  82. Millions of sperm cells are destroyed by the vagina's acidic enviroment?
    True
  83. Shortly after implantation ____________.
    the trophoblast forms two distinct layers
  84. The dorsal surface cells of the inner cell mass form ______________.
    the primitive streak
  85. Muscle tissue is formed by the ______________.
    mesoderm
  86. Neural tissue is formed by the _________________.
    ectoderm
  87. The trophoblast is mostly responsible for forming the ________________.
    placental tissue
  88. At which stage of labor is the "afterbirth" expelled?
    placental
  89. Inhibin is not produced by the placenta?
    True
  90. During which stage of labor is the fetus delivered?
    Expulsion stage
  91. Aspirin is not considered a teratogen?
    True
  92. Development events during weeks 9-12 include ______________.
    sex readily detected from genitals
  93. Derivatives of the ectoderm include ___________.
    epithelium of the pineal and pituitary glands
  94. Milk ejection or letdown reflex is stimulated by this pregnancy associated hormone
    oxytocin

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