Malaria

Card Set Information

Author:
japanice27
ID:
307061
Filename:
Malaria
Updated:
2015-08-30 05:13:02
Tags:
malaria
Folders:
cdn
Description:
a review about malaria
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user japanice27 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Malaria/ Ague:
    • -an acute and chronic parasitic dse transmitted by a bite of infected mosquitoes.
    • -common: topical and subtropical areas
  2. E.A:
    • there are FOUR species of protozoa:
    • Protozoa of genus plasmodia

    • 1. Plasmodium Falciparum (malignant tertians)
    • -most serious! 
    • -(+)development of high parasitic densities in the blood (RBC). This type tends to cause agglutination, resulting in microembolus formation.
    • 2. Plasmodium vivax (benign tertian)
    • -non-life threatening, except for the very young and the very old
    • -(+) chills every 48 hours on the third day onward.

    • 3. Plasmodium malariae (quartan)
    • -less frequently seen than the first two others.
    • -non-life threatening
    • -(+) fever and chills occur every 72 hours (4th day after onset)

    • 4. Plasmodium ovale 
    • -rare type.

  3. PRIMARY VECTOR OF MALARIA:
    • ANOPHELES MOSQUITO:
    • ~characteristics:
    • -breeds: clear, flowing, and shaded streams (mountains)
    • -bigger than ordinary mosquito
    • -brown
    • -night-biting mosquito
    • -does not bite a person in motion
    • -assumes a 36 degree position when it alights on walls, trees, curtains and the like.
  4. I.P:
    • 12 days: P.F
    • 14 days: P.V and ovale
    • 30 days: P.M
  5. POC:
    human: (-) treatment ⇒ pt may be a source of mosquito infection

    • P.M: more than 3 years
    • P.V: one to two years
    • P.F: not more than 1 year
  6. MOT:
    • 1. bite of a FEMALE anopheles mosquito.
    • 2. can be transmitted through BT
    • 3. shared contaminated needles (rare)
    • 4. transplacental transmission of congenital malaria (rare)
  7. S/SX:
    • -paroxysms with shaking chills
    • -rapid: rising fever and headache
    • -myalgia
    • -splenomegaly, hepatomegaly
    • -orthostatic hypotension
    • -paroxysm may last for 12 hours and attack daily or every two days.

    • *Children:
    • -continuous fever
    • -convulsions and GIT sx
    • -(+)splenomegaly

    • *Cerebral malaria:
    • -(+)severe headache, vomiting and changes in sensorium
    • -jacksonian or grand mal seizure
  8. Pathogenesis:
    • anapholes mosquito gets parasite from blood of an infected person
    •                                ⇓
    • parasites multiply in the mosquito; parasites invade the salivary gland of the mosquito.
    •                                ⇓
    • mosquito bites a human (injects the parasite)
    •                                 ⇓
    • parasite: invade RBC, where they grow and undergo asexual propagation
    •                                 ⇓
    • RBCs rupture and burst, releasing tiny organism (merozoites)
    •                                 ⇓
    • merozoites invades a new batch of RBCs to start another schizonic cycle

    • (+) coagulation defect
    • (+)anemia
  9. DX:
    • Malarial Smear: 
    • film of blood is placed on a slide

    • Rapid Dx Test:
    • can be conducted outside the lab and in the field; result: 10-15 mins; detect malarial parasite antigen in the body.
  10. Management:
    • a. ANTI MALARIAL DRUGS:
    • ~chloroquine (all species EXCEPT P.M)
    • ~quinine
    • ~sulfadoxine (resistant P.F)
    • ~primaquine (relapse of P.V and ovale)
    • b. erythrocyte exchange transfusion for rapid production of high levels of parasites in the blood.
  11. Nursing Management:
    • -monitor pt
    • -I&O (px pulmonary edema)
    • -daily monitoring of serum BUN, bilirubin, crea and parasitic count
    • -(+) resp and renal sx: ABG levels and plasma electrolyte
    • -febrile: tepid bath, alcohol rubs, and ice cap on the head
    • -chilling stage: hot drinks and application of external heat
    • -decreased temp and (+) sweating: warm sponge baths
    • -WOF: abnormal bleeding
    • -severe malaria: EMERGENCY!!!
    • -increase OFI
    • -bed and clothing should be kept dry
  12. Prevention:
    • breeding places must be destroyed
    • insect repellents
    • people living in malaria-infested areas should NOT donate blood for at least three years
    • blood donors: properly screened

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview