human anatomy chapter 1

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Anonymous
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307079
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human anatomy chapter 1
Updated:
2015-08-30 16:23:27
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introduction
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science
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introduction to anatomy
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  1. 2 sizes of anatomy
    • · microscopic
    • ·gross
  2. microscopic
    structure too small to be seen with the unaided eye
  3. gross
    structures that can be seen with the unaided eye
  4. gross subdisciplines
    • · regional anatomy
    • · systemic anatomy
    • · surface anatomy
  5. regional anatomy
    • ·study of structures within a single region
    •     - e.g., the hand an neck or abdomen
  6. systemic anatomy
    • · study of structures involved with specific activity
    •       -e.g, digestion, or reproduction
  7. surface anatomy
    · study on internal structures  as their location relate to regions of skin or other surface markings
  8. language of anatomy
    • · anatomy a visual science, based on proper terminology
    • · a standard universal position for comparing structures is needed
  9. the anatomic position
    • · characteristics of the anatomic position
    •     - standing up right
    •     - feet parallel and on the floor
    •     -  head level and looking forward
    •     - arms at side of body
    •     - palms facing forward and thumbs pointing away from body
    • · palms facing up
    • · any change from anatomical position is angular movement
    •  
  10. sections and planes
    • · use to visualize internal and 3D anatomy of body parts relative to each other
    • · a section
    •    - an actual cut or slice through a structure 
    •    - or a piece removed by slicing a structure
    • ·planes
    •    - imaginary flat surface passing through the body or an organ
    •     - there are 3 standard anatomic planes
  11. 3 anatomic planes
    • 1. coronal (frontal) plane
    • 2. transverse (horizontal) plane
    • 3. Midsagittal (median) plane
  12. coronal plane
    · divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back ) parts
  13. transverse plane
    ·divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) parts
  14. Midsagittal plane
  15. ·divides the body into equal left and right halves
    • · other sagittal planes divide the body into unequal left and right parts
    • · parasagittal plane ⇒ off center
  16. anatomical directions
    • · allows us to describe the relative position of one body structure in relation to another
    •     - anterior vs. posterior
    •            - (front vs. back or ventral and dorsal)
    •            - names change for feet
    •      -superior vs. inferior (apply to head , chest and pelvis)
    •      - medial vs. lateral (midline)
    •      - proimal vs. distal (limbs)
    •           - proximal: close to  origin
    •            - distal: away from
    • ·cranial- close to head
    • · codal (cocox) -  close to tail
    • · rostral - close to the beak/nose
    • ·superficial vs. deep
    •     - superficial - skin
    •     - deep - muscle/ bone
    •           - also know as profundus (muscles) - hidden
  17. regional anatomy
    • the body can b divided into 2 major regions:
    •   - axial 
    •   - appendicular
  18. axial
    head,  neck and trunk ( the vertical axis of the body)
  19. appendicular
    upper and lower limbs (appendages)
  20. body cavities
    • · posterior cavities
    •    - cranial:formed by skull bones
    •    - vertebral: formed by vertebral column bones
    • ·ventral cavities
    •    - thoracic: the superior cavity
    •    - abdoninopelvic: the inferior cavity
    •         - physically separated by the diaphragm
  21. Cavity membranes
    • · ventral cavities are lines by thin serous membrane
    •    - divided into 2 continuous parts (layers):
    •         1. parietal layer: lines the internal surface of the body wall
    •          2. visceral layer: covers the external surface of organs in the cavity
    •     - both layers produce a small amount of fluid to lubricate the organs, protect against friction
  22. thoracic cavity
    • ·  the heart is located in a middle compartment called e mediastinum
    • · the serous membrane that surrounds the heart is called the pericardium
    •     - as the heart develops; it projects into the pericardium but doesn't break it
    • · the pericardium develops 2 continuous layers:
    •     - visceral pericardium: on the surface of the heart
    •    - parietal pericardium: surrounding the heart
    • · between the layers is a space called the pericardial cavity
    • · similar development happens with the lungs
  23. abdominopelvic cavity
    • · 2 continuous cavities with no physical separation
    •    - abdominal cavity (superior)
    •    - pelvic cavity (inferior)
    • · the anatomical boundary between the 2 cavities is an imaginary horizontal line drawn across the superior border of the hop bones
  24. membranes of the abdominopelvic cavities
    • ·the serous membrane= peritoneum
    •   -  2 continuous layers
    •       1. visceral peritoneum: on outer surface of organs
    •       2. parietal peritoneum: lining the internal walls and not directly in contact with the organs
  25. regions of the adbominopelvic cavity
    • · being the largest cavity, it is divided
    •    - using 2 sagittal and 2 horizontal planes
    •         - into 9 regions
    •         - allowing anatomists and health-care professionals a more accurate way to describe organ locations
  26. abdominopelvic quadrants
    the abdominopelvic cavity can also be divided into 4 quadrants
  27. angular motions
    • · an angle between bones changes
    •    - flexion vs. extension
    •          - extension: return to anatomical position
    •    - hyperextension
    •         - beyond anatomical position
    •    - lateral flexion
    •         - only in trunk/neck
    •    - abduction vs. adduction
    •         - abduction: limbs move away from middling
    •          - adduction: limbs move closer to midline (for finger and toes the middle finger/ toe is the midline)
    •   - circumduction
  28. rotational motion
    • ·a bone turns along its longitudinal axis
    •     - alantoaxial joint turning back-and-forth in the "no" gesture
    •     - limbs turning to and from median plane
    •            - medial and lateral rotation
    •            -  pronation vs. supination
  29. special movements
    • ·occur only at specific joints
    •    - depression vs. elevation
    •    - dorsiflexion vs. plantar flexion
    •          -foot
    •    - inversion vs. eversion
    •    - protraction vs. retraction
    •          -protraction: forward
    •          - retraction: backward
    •          - ex. jaws and shoulders
    •     -opposition
    •          - hand pinky to thumb touching

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