human anatomy chapter 5

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amauerba
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307094
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human anatomy chapter 5
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2015-08-30 21:37:53
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introduction integument
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science
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introduction to the integument
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  1. introduction to the integument
    • · integument = skin
    •    - largerest organ (7%-8% of body weight)
    •    - 2 layers
    •         -epidermis
    •         - dermis
  2. epidermis
    · superficial layer of stratified squamous epithelium
  3. dermis
    • · deeper layer of areolar and dense irregular connective tissue
    •     - hypodermis: (not par of the skin) lies under the dermis, mostly adipose connective tissue
  4. integument functions
    • · protection => infection/loss of fluids
    • · prevention of H2O loss
    • · temperature regulation
    • · metabolic regulation
    • · immune regulation
    • · sensory reception
    • · excretion/secretion
  5. the epidermis
    • · most superficial layer
    • · avascular
    • · keratinzed stratified squamous epithelium
    •      - keratin is a water-insoluble protein
    •      - 4 to 5 layers (strata) of distinct cell type
    •          - thin skin: has 4 layers
    •          - thick skin: has 5 layers
  6. epidermal strata
    • · from deep the superficial (as they grow)
    •   - stratum basale
    •   - stratum spinosum
    •   - stratum granulosm
    •   - stratum lucidium ( found only in thick skin)
    •    - stratum corneum


    come lets get sun burn
  7. stratum basale
    • · only layer that undergoes mitosis
    • · one layer of cells adjacent to the dermis
    •    - keratinocytes: most abundant; produce keratin to waterproof skin
    •    - melanocytes: cell with long, branched cytoplasmic processes; produce a pigment ( black, brown, yellow) that absorbs UV light to prevent DNA damage, reducing some forms of skin cancer
    •    - tactile (Merkel) cells: sense touch
  8. stratum spinosum
    • · several layers thick
    • · daughter cells from the stratum basale
    •     - differentiate into non-dividing (may see a rare mitotic cell), highly specialized keratinocytes
    • · epidermal dendritic cells
    •    - phagocytes that engulf invading pathogens
  9. stratum granulosum
    • ·3-5 layers of keratinocytes
    •    - cytoplasm fills with keratin/keratohyalin filaments
    •    - organelle begin to degrade
    •    -  fully keratinized cells are dead but strong and water-insoluble
  10. stratum lucidum
    • · thin, translucent region, 2-3 layers thick
    • · present only in thick skin such as sole of feet and palms of hands
    • ·cells lack organelles, filled with eleidin
    •    - transparent, intermediate product of keratin maturation
  11. Stratum corneum
    • · most superficial layer of epidermis
    • · thickness varies from few to 30 layers thick depending on location on the body
    • · comprised solely if dead keratinocytes
    •     -sloughed off by abrasion=dust
  12. epidermal variation: skin color
    • skin color is determines by 3 pigments
    • · hemoglobin: blood pigment; causes light complexions  to look pink ( or blue)
    • · melanin: pigment produced by melanocytes; increase in people exposed to more UV light
    • ·Carotene: yellow-orange pigment from food that builds up in the skin
  13. epidermal variation: skin marking
    • · nevus:localized overgrowth of melanocytes
    •     a.k.a. mole
    • ·hemangioma : proliferation of blood vessels
    •     - may disappear (strawberry) in childhood or may persist (port-wine) though adulthood
    • · friction ridges: fold of epidermis/dermis on fingers, palms, soles, and toes for grasping
    •    - cause us to leave fingerprints
  14. the dermis
    • · lies deep to the epidermis
    • · 2 layers of connective tissue
    •     -papillary: superficial
    •     - reticular: deeper
    •           - manly collagen fibers
    •            - contains blood vessels, glands ,hair follicles, nail roots, sensory nerve endings and smooth muscles
  15. the papillary layer
    • · directly below stratum basale cells of epidermis
    •    - dermal papillae and epidermal ridges interlock, increasing the surface area between epidermis and dermis
  16. the reticular layer
    • · forms majority of the dermis
    •  · comprised manly of dense irregular connective tissue with large bundles if collagen fibers, blood vessels, glands, hair follicles and nerves
  17. lines of cleavage
    • · lines in the deep dermis formed by the orientation of collagen bundles
    •       important to surgeons: incisions across these lines heal more slowly that incisions along the lines
  18. innervation
    • · nerve fibers are present in dermis
    • · functions:
    •       - tactile (touch) receptors
    •       -  control blood flow
    •       - control glandular secretion
  19. blood supply
    • · epidermis: avascular
    • · dermis: contains blood vessels
    •    - important in controlling body temperature
    •         vasoconstriction:  narrowing blood vessels preserves core body heat
    •       - vasodilation: widening blood vessels releases body heat, lowering body temperature
  20. the hypodermis
    • ·aka subcutaneous layer
    •   - deep to, not really part of, the integument 
    •   - areolar and adipose connective tissues
    • · functions:
    •    - protects underlying structures
    •    - stores energy
    •    - thermal insulation
  21. epidermal derivatives
    • · structure that grow form the epidermis
    •   - nails
    •   - hairs
    •   - glands
  22. nails
    • · derived form the stratum corneum
    • · cells densely packed together filled with parallel fibers of hard keratin
    • · the nail plate has whitish free edge, a pinkish nail body and a nail root
    • ·the nail body cover a layer of epidermis called the nail bed
    • · the nail bed appear pink because of the underlying capillaries
    • ·protective structure on digits
    • · parts
    •    - nail body: flat keratinized cells protecting digit
    •    - nail bed (hyponychium): live epidermal cells under nail body
    •    - nail root: region hidden by cuticle
    •           -nail matrix: thickened growing part if the nail bed
    •            - lunula: white semilunar proximal area of the nail body caused by thickened underlying stratum basale obscuring capillaries in dermis
  23. hair
    • · columns of keratinocytes growing form follicles deep in dermis or hypodermis
    • · regions of a hair from deep to surface
    •    - hair bulb
    •    - hair root
    •    - hair shaft
    • ·also called a pilus
    • · fragment of keratinized cells
    • · grows from oblique tube called a hair follicle
    • · grows almost everywhere, except
    •      - lips
    •      - nipples
    •      - parts of genitals
    •      - palms and soles
    •      - ventral and lateral surface of fingers and toes
    •      - distal segments of fingers
  24. 3 types of hair
    • · lanugo: fine downy unpigmented hair of fetus
    • · velius
    •      - fine unpigmented
    •      - 2/3 hair of women
    •      - 1/10  hair of men
    •      - all of children's except eyebrows, eyelashes, and scalp
    • ·terminal:
    •      - course and pigmented
    •      - eye brows, eyelashes and scalp
    •      - after puberty
    •               - axillary
    •               - pubic
    •               - male facial hair
    •               -  some hair of trunk and limbs
  25. hair structure
    • · from deep to superficial
    •    - hair papilla: connective tissue, nerves and blood vessels below follicle that support the keratinocytes
    •    -  hair bulb: a swelling at bottom of follicle filled with dividing keratinocytes, increase in hair matrix causing hair growth
    •     - arrector pili: involuntary smooth muscle attached to hair shaft, responds to emotional states (fear or rage) and cold temperature by contracting standing hair up and producing "goose bumps"
  26. functions of hair
    • ·protection
    • · heat retention
    • · facial expression
    • · sensory reception
    • · visual identification
    • · chemical signal dispersal
  27. skin exocrine glands
    • · 2 most common types:
    •     - sweat glands:  produce watery solution
    •          - merocrine and apocrine (genital/armpit) 
    •         - sebaceous glands: produce oily secretions (halocrine gland => mostly associated with hair
    • · 2 rare types
    •     - ceruminous gland: produce ear wax
    •     - mammary gland: produce milk
  28. merocrine sweat glands
    • ·simple coiled tubular glands that secret into adduct with a pore on skin's surface
    •     - secretion is 99% H2O, clear, and controlled by nervous system
    •      - numerous on forehead, palm, and soles 
    • · functions
    •      - thermoregulation
    •      - secretion
    •      - protection
  29. apocrine sweat glands
    • · siple coiled tubular glands that secret into hair follicles around nipple (areolae) armpit (axillae) groin (public) and anus( anal)
    •     -secretion is thick, cloudy, protein and lipids
    •          -  leads to bacterial growth, causing body odor in the above regions
  30. sebaceous glands
    • · secrete oily sebum into hair follicles
    •     - lubricates hair and skin
    •     - relatively inactive during childhood; sex hormones at puberty cause secretion to increase significantly
  31. basal cell carcinoma
    • · most common
    • · least dangerous: hardly metastasizes
    • · arises in stratum basale and invades dermis
  32. squamous cell carcinoms
    • ·arises from keratinocytes of stratum spinosum
    • · can metastasize to lymph nodes
    • · can be lethel
  33. malignant melanoma
    • · most deadly but only 5% of cases
    • ·arises from melanocyte of existing mole
    • · metastasizes quickly and often fatal if not treated quickly
  34. 1st degree burn
    (partial- thickness burn)
    • ·only dermis
    • ·usually localized
    • · redness, slight edema and pain
    • · sunburn
  35. 2nd degree burn
    ( partial-thickness burn)
    • · epidermis and part if dermis
    • · red, tan, white
    • · blistered and painful
    • · may cause damage to hair follicles, nerve endings and cutaneous glands
    • ·sunburn and scalds
  36. 3rd  degree burn
    (full-thickness burn)
    • ·epidermis and dermis are completely destroyed
    • · contracture and disfigurement can result

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