Introduction to Sociology- Chapter Three- Culture

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Introduction to Sociology- Chapter Three- Culture
2015-08-31 19:27:37
Basic terms for sociology
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  1. Culture
    The entire way of life of a group of people (including both material and symbolic elements) that acts as a lens through which one views the world and is passed from one generation to the next
  2. Ethnocentrism
    the principle of using ones own culture as a means or standard by which to evaluate another group or individual, leading to the view that cultures other than ones own are abnormal or inferior
  3. Cultural Relativism
    the principle of understanding other cultures on their own terms, rather than judging or evaluating according to ones own culture.
  4. Material Culture
    the objects associated with a cultural group, such as tools, machines, utensils, buildings, and artwork; any physical object to which we give social meaning
  5. Symbolic Culture
    the ideas associated with a cultural group, including ways of thinking (beliefs, values, and assumptions) and ways of behaving (norms interactions and communication)
  6. Sign
    a symbol that stands for or conveys an idea
  7. Gestures
    The ways in which people use their bodies to communicate without words; actions that have a symbolic meaning
  8. Language
    a system of communication using vocal sounds, gestures, or written symbols; the basis of symbolic culture and the primary means through which we communicate with one another and perpetuate our culture
  9. Sapir-whorf Hypothesis
    the idea that language thought and that ways of looking at the world are embedded in language
  10. Values
    ideas about what is desirable or contemptible and right or wrong in a particular group; they articulate the essence of everything that a cultural group cherishes and honors
  11. Norm
    a rule or guideline regarding what kinds of behavior are acceptable and appropriate within a culture
  12. Law
    a common type of formally defined norm providing an explicit statement about what is permissible and what is illegal in a given society