Neuro- Functional NS

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Mawad
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307126
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Neuro- Functional NS
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2015-09-05 12:15:29
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  1. Neurons that make muscles move; sends fibers outside of CNS.
    lower motor neurons (LMN)
  2. Neurons that control the neutrons that make muscles move; completely within the CNS.
    upper motor neurons (UMN)
  3. Neurons that monitor the environment inside the body.
    visceral sensory neurons
  4. Neurons that monitor the environmental stimuli that are eternal to the body.
    somatic sensory neurons
  5. Modified nerve endings to detect changes of the internal environment on the body.
    interoreceptors
  6. Interoreceptors form the _________ portion of the NS.
    GVA
  7. Modified nerve endings that detect changes of the external environment on the body, pain, or spatial orientation of the limbs, head, and trunk.
    exteroreceptors
  8. Exteroreceptors that detect changes of the external environment contribute to the formation of...
    special somatic afferent (SSA) and special visceral afferent (SVA) portions of the NS
  9. Exteroreceptors that detect pain contribute to the formation of the __________ as ________.
    GSA; nociception
  10. Exteroreceptors that detect spatial orientation of the limbs, head, and trunk contribute to the formation of the _________ as _______.
    GSA; proprioception
  11. General proprioception comes from receptors in the __________; special proprioception comes from receptors in the __________.
    trunk and limbs; inner ear
  12. Reflex pathways involve sensory information that operates at the _________ by traveling __________ up the spinal cord through the _________.
    local level; a short distance; propriospinal tract
  13. Relay pathways involve sensory information that travels __________ up that spinal cord to reach the __________, thereby forming ____________.
    a long distance; brain; named tracts of the spinal cord
  14. Sensory information from the head and face travel via ________.
    cranial nerves
  15. Sensory information from the trunk and limbs travel via _________.
    spinal nerves
  16. What are the components of reflex pathways?
    sensory input, interneuron (sometimes), motor output
  17. A monosynaptic reflex is a direct sensory synapse on the _______.
    LMN
  18. A monosynaptic reflex lacks an __________.
    interneuron
  19. A polysynaptic reflex involves sensory information first synpasing on a(n) __________.
    interneuron
  20. What are 4 roles of interneurons?
    contributes to reflex and relay pathways, local cord segment, adjacent cord segments to recruit/inhibit motor units, relay to higher levels
  21. Conscious pathways of proprioception operate while __________.
    the body is at rest
  22. Unconscious pathways of proprioception operate while ___________.
    the body is in motion
  23. GP proproiceptors respond to __(3)__.
    movement, pressure, and stretch
  24. GP proprioceptors are located in __(3)__.
    muscles, tendons, and joints
  25. Conscious proprioception from the pelvic limb.
    fasciculus gracilis (FG)
  26. The primary neuron of the FG is in the ______ of the ______.
    DRG; lumbosacral region
  27. Primary axons of the FG ascend __________ to synpase with secondary neurons in the _________.
    ipsilaterally; nucleus gracilis
  28. Secondary axons of FG cross the midline after the _______ as _________ to form the __________ and ascend to the brainstem.
    nucleus gracilis; deep arcuate fibers; contralateral medial lemniscus
  29. Secondary axons of FG form the __________, which synapses with tertiary neurons in the _________; tertiary axons contribute to formation of the ________, then terminate in the __________.
    contralateral medial lemniscus; ventral caudal lateral nucleus (VCL); internal capsule; somesthetic cortex
  30. The somesthetic cortex is part of the _________ cortex in the ___________.
    sensory; parietal lobe of the cerebrum
  31. The primary neuron of the fasciculus cuneatus (FC) is in the _______ of the ________.
    DRG; thoracic region
  32. Primary axons of the FC ascend __________ to synapse with secondary neurons in the __________.
    ipsilaterally; medial cuneate nucleus
  33. Secondary axons of the FC cross the midline after the _________ as ________ to form the _________ and ascend to the brainstem.
    nucleus cuneatus; deep arcuate fibers; contralateral medial lemniscus
  34. Secondary axons of the FC form the ________, which synapses with tertiary neurons in the _________; tertiary axons contribute to the _________, then terminate in the __________.
    contralateral medial lemniscus;VCL; internal capsule; somesthetic cortex
  35. Unconscious proprioception of the pelvic limb.
    dorsal spinocerebellar tract, ventral spinocerebellar tract
  36. The primary neuron of the DCST is in the ______; the secondary neuron is in the _________ of _________.
    DRG; dorsal grey column; Clarke's nucleus (aka thoracic nucleus)
  37. Secondary axons of DCST ascend _________ in the ________ forming _______; they pass through the __________, enter the _________, and terminate in the __________.
    ipsilaterally; lateral funiculus; DSCT; superficial arcuate fibers; caudal cerebellar peduncle; cerebellar cortex
  38. The ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT) had primary neurons in the ______; the secondary neuron is in the _________.
    DRG; dorsal grey column
  39. Secondary axons of the VSCT cross the midline in the _________ and ascend __________ in the ___________, enter the __________; then they __________ to terminate in the ____________.
    ventral white commissure; contralaterally; lateral funiculus; rostral cerebellar peduncle; re-cross; ipsilateral cerebellar cortex
  40. Describe a contralateral pathway.
    lesions in the brain/brainstem cause deficit on the contralateral side; lesion in the cord causes deficit on the ipsilateral side
  41. The fasciculus gracilis is a(n) __________ pathway.
    contralateral
  42. Fasciculus cuneatus is a(n) _________ pathway.
    contralateral
  43. How can you localize a lesion to the brainstem/brain vs spinal cord?
    test reflexes, which work at a local level to localize to the spinal cord; test CN to localize to the brain/brainstem
  44. The DCST is a(n) _________ pathway.
    ipsilateral
  45. The VCST is a(n) _________ pathway.
    ipsilateral
  46. In the VCST, secondary axons go through the ____________ before they re-cross the midline to terminate.
    contralateral rostral cerebellar peduncle
  47. All unconscious pathways are on the _______ portion of the spinal cord; all conscious pathways are in the _________ portion.
    lateral; dorsal
  48. If there is a conscious deficit, such as ________, the lesion is localized to the __________ spinal cord.
    dorsal
  49. If there is an unconscious deficit, such as __________, the lesion is localized to the _________ spinal cord.
    sensory ataxia (wide stance, wobbly, limbs swing wide when walking); lateral
  50. A lesion that occurs after FG and FC merge in the deep arcuate fibers will cause what deficits?
    conscious proprioception deficits in both thoracic limb and pelvic limb
  51. The cuneocerebellar tract is in the _________ aspect of the ________.
    lateral; fasciculus cuneatus
  52. A simple reflex arc consists of...
    a sensory input and a motor output
  53. The cell bodies for sensory neurons of the limbs are located in the _________; their primary axons enter the __________; in a simple reflex arc, primary axons synapse on a __________, which is in the __________.
    spinal ganglia; grey matter of the spinal cord; lower motor neuron; grey matter of the ventral horn of the spinal cord
  54. For a reflex arc involving the facial muscles, the primary axons synapse in the LMN in the ________ to cause the motor output.
    grey matter of brain stem nuclei
  55. The first order neuron for the cuneocerebellar tract (CCT)  is in the _______; primary axons ascend ____________ in the most ________ part of the __________.
    DRG; ipsilaterally; lateral; fasciculus cuneatus
  56. The second order neurons of the CCT are in the _________; secondary axons ascend __________ through the brainstem and enter the __________ to terminate in the ___________.
    lateral cuneate nucleus; ipsilaterally; caudal cerebellar peduncle; cerebellar cortex
  57. The CCT is a(n) __________ pathway.
    ipsilateral
  58. The primary neurons of the rostral spinocerebellar tract (RSCT) are in the ________; primary axons synapse with the secondary neurons in the __________; secondary axons ascend _________ in the _________.
    DRG; dorsal grey column; lateral funiculus (RSCT)
  59. The secondary axons of the RSCT enter the ___________ and terminate in the ___________.
    ipsilateral rostral and caudal cerebellar peduncles; cerebellar cortex
  60. The RSCT is a(n) ___________ pathway.
    ipsilateral
  61. What are the GSA nociception systems?
    spinal nerves- spinothalamic tract and cranial nerves- quintothalamic tract
  62. Describe the 2 types of spinal reflex arc.
    monosynaptic (sensory input--> motor output), polysynaptic (includes interneuron)
  63. The first order neuron of the spinothalamic tract is in the _____; first order axons __________ segmentally and form the _________.
    DRG; ascend or descend; dorsolateral fasciculus (aka Lissauer's tract)
  64. The second order neurons of the spinothalamic tract are in the __________; secondary axons immediately __________ and ascend _________ in the ___________.
    dorsal grey horn of the spinal cord; cross; contralaterally; ventrolateral fasciculus as the spinothalamic tract
  65. The third order neurons of the spinothalamic tract are in the __________ of the __________; third order axons contribute to the _________ and terminate in the ___________.
    ventral caudal lateral nucleus of the thalamus (VCL); internal capsule; cerebral cortex
  66. In a cranial reflex arc, the first order neurons are in the ___________; primary axons _____________ to form the _____________.
    trigeminal ganglion; ascend and descend; spinal tract of the trigeminal n.
  67. In a cranial reflex arc, second order neurons are in the __________ for mechanical sensations or the __________ for thermal sensations.
    pontine sensory nucleus; spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve
  68. In a cranial reflex arc, secondary axons synapse in the __________ of __________ in the brainstem; the third order neuron is the __________ of the appropriate _________; third order axons leave the brainstem through a _________ to reach the peripheral target.
    motor nuclei; appropriate CN; motor neuron; CN; CN
  69. The first order neuron of the qunitothaamic tract is in the _________; primary axons _________ to form the __________.
    trigeminal ganglion; ascend and descend; spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve
  70. Second order neurons of the quintothalamic tract are in the __________ for mechanical sensation and in the __________ for thermal sensation; secondary axons immediately __________ and ascend ________ as the __________.
    pontine sensory nucleus; spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve; cross the midline; contralaterally; trigeminal lemniscus
  71. Third order neuron of the qunitothalamic tract are in the _____________; third order axons contribute to the _________ and terminate in the _________.
    ventral caudal medial nucleus of the thalamus (VCM); internal capsule; cerebral cortex
  72. The origin of the trigeminal nerve is the __________ within the _________ at the level of the __________.
    motor nucleus of the trigeminal n.; metencephalon; rostral cerebellar peduncle
  73. The origin of the facial nerve is the ___________ within the __________, halfway between the __________ and the __________.
    motor nucleus of the facial n.; myelencephalon; trapezoid body; olive
  74. LMN are located within... (3)
    skeletal m., visceral m., glandular tissue
  75. LMN are in the __________ in the spinal cord and within ________ in the brain.
    ventral grey matter; subcortical pockets
  76. The cortical motor system= _________.
    pyramidal motor system
  77. The cortical motor system regulates __________ that results in __________.
    LMN activity; highly skilled motor activity
  78. The portion of the upper motor system that includes discretely organize, interconnected white matter structures that are formed by axons that pass through the pyramids.
    cortical motor system/ pyramidal motor system
  79. Non-cortical motor system=___________
    extra-pyramidal motor system
  80. The non-cortical motor system regulates _________ that is responsible for... (3)
    LMN activity; muscle tone, posture, and coarse movements
  81. Portion of the upper motor system that includes motor centers that are scattered in each division of the brain with axons that are not associated with the pyramids.
    non-cortical motor system/ extra-pyramidal motor system
  82. The motor cortex of the pyramidal motor system is composed of _________ that are in the _______ and _______ gyri; descending axons contribute to the formation of _____________.
    cell bodies; pre-cruciate; post-cruciate; discretely organized bundles of white matter
  83. The white matter of the pyramidal motor system are part of the ______________.
    descending projection fiber system
  84. What are the white matter structures of the pyramidal motor system from rostral to caudal? (5)
    [rostral] corona radiata, internal capsule, crus cerebri, longitudinal fibers of the pons, pyramids [caudal]--> axons continue to formed corticospinal tracts
  85. The cortionuclear system is from the ___________ and stops in the ___________ of _____________.
    pyramidal motor cortex; LMN nuclei; CN 3-7 and 9-12
  86. The corticospinal system is from the ____________ and stops in the ____________.
    pyramidal motor cortex; LMN in the spinal cord
  87. What are the components of the corticospinal tract?
    lateral and ventral corticospinal fibers
  88. The corticospinal system is a _________ pathway.
    contralateral
  89. 75% of the corticospinal tract _______ at the __________ and descend into the spinal cord to regulate the __________ in the ___________.
    cross; pyramidal decussation; contralateral LMNs; lateral grey column/funiculus
  90. 25% of the corticospinal tract ________ and descend _________ to _________ at the appropriate level of the spinal cord to regulate ________ in the _________.
    do not cross; ipsilaterally; cross; LMN; ventral grey column/funiculus
  91. Extra-pyramidal nuclei are located...
    scattered on the surface of the cortex in all five divisions of the brain.
  92. Extra-pyramidal centers in the subcortical grey matter are called __________, forming an area called the __________.
    basal ganglia; corpus striatum
  93. The corpus striatum is an area of the __________ under the surface of the cortex formed by ________ of ________.
    telencephalon; alternating bundles of white and grey matter (extra-pyramidal nuclei)
  94. What are the layers of the corpus striatum from lateral to medial? What are they composed of? (4)
    [lateral] external capsule (white matter), lentiform nucleus (putamen then pallidum- grey matter), internal capsule (white matter), caudate nucleus (grey matter)
  95. What are the two parts of the lentiform nucleus and their purposes?
    putamen (afferent- receives information), pallidum (efferent- send info out of corpus striatum to other extra-pyramidal areas)
  96. What is the purpose of the caudate nucleus?
    afferent- receives extra-pyramidal information
  97. What is the purpose of the corpus striatum?
    extra-pyramidal- facilitates appropriate movement and inhibits inappropriate movement
  98. The cerebellar input for the pyramidal system are... (2)
    corticopontine fibers (give rise to pontocerebellar fibers)
  99. Corticopontine fibers (pyramidal) are from the _________ to the _________ for synpase; their axons are the ____________.
    pyramidal motor cortex; pontine nucleus; transverse fibers of the pons
  100. Pontocerebellar fibers (pyramidal) are __________ that cross to form the ___________ that enter the cerebellum.
    corticopontine fibers; middle cerebellar peduncle
  101. The _________ of the extra-pyramidal system receives information from extra-pyramidal structures and sends it to the cerebellum as ___________.
    olivary nucleus; olivocerebellar fibers
  102. Clinical signs of UMN disease are due to the loss of _________________.
    loss of regulatory inhibition of LMN
  103. What are clinical signs of UMN disease?
    hyperreflexia, hypertonus, spastic paralysis, slow muscle atrophy over time

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