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- author "KoollyT
- tags "2015 engineers exam"
- folders "Manuals"
- description ""
- fileName "WILDLAND REFRESHER"
- WILDLAND EVALUATION GUIDE consist of ?
- Wildland Evaluation Form (FD-463)
- Wildland Evaluation Instructor Guide (FD-463A)
Wildland Evaluation Instructor Guide (FD-463A) and the Training Packet provided. Be prepared to discuss each of the following:
- 10 Standard Fire Orders.
- 18 Situations that Shout Watch out.
- Engine and Vehicle Operations Do and Don’ts.
VHF RADIO: Be prepared to demonstrate and explain the operation of
- Group Scan
- Priority Channel
- Channel Guard
- Talk Around
- Travel Net
the three factors affecting fire behavior.
local wind patterns found in the San Diego area and Southern California region.
the four methods of deploying a fire shelter (within 30 seconds)
- Standing Deployment
- On the Ground Deployment
- While Engaging
- Strong Wind Deployment
Wildland firefighters can mitigate the risks posed by these hazardous conditions in a variety of ways. These include:
- 1. Maintain constant vigilance. Remember, most fires are innocent in appearance before unexpected shifts in wind direction and/or speed results in flare-up or extreme fire behavior
- 2. Look up, look down, look around! A firefighter who has situational awareness is a safe firefighter
- 3. Practice LCES at all times: Lookouts, Communications, Escape Routes and Safety Zones. You've studied them well - put that knowledge into practice.
- 1. Shall have adequate knowledge of fuels, weather, topography, and fire behavior.
- 2. Are 100% dedicated to their assignment, experienced, competent, and trusted individuals.
- 3. Observe from safe location(s) with a 100% visual of all hazards and personnel.
- 4. Have 100% communication with assigned units and know their locations and call signs.
- 1. All personnel shall know the communication plan for the incident.
- 2. All supervisory personnel shall insure direct communication with their subordinates, superiors, and adjacent resources at all times. Effective communications may include the use of radios, face-to-face, phones, visual signals, and mechanical devices.
- 3. All personnel shall demonstrate discipline when utilizing radios by communicating only when necessary through short, precise, and complete messages.
- 4. All personnel shall insure that communication is received and understood, do not assume.
- 5. All personnel shall perform periodic radio checks as necessary.
L.C.E.S. Escape Routes
- 1. When possible, two escape routes (1 primary) shall be identified (flagged?) and accessible to personnel at all times while operating in a hazardous environment.
- 2. Escape routes shall be scouted (visually checked) and safe.
- 3. Escape routes shall be adequate for the slowest or farthest away person to reach a Safety/Survival Zone without injury (anticipate rate of spread).
- 4. Escape routes (and Survival Zones) may change over time; Stay current
L.C.E.S. Safety or Survival Zones
- 1. Safety Zones are locations for personnel to find refuge from danger without the need of a fire shelter; they range from marginal to super-safe. Survival Zones do not provide the protection or level of safety as a Safety Zone; however they may be the only way for firefighters to protect civilians during wildland fires requiring structure protection.
- 2. Safety/Survival Zones shall be adequate in size and number for all personnel and for apparatus (like lifeboats). Note: Defensible space may not provide a Survival Zone!
- 3. Fire line intensity (Fire Behavior) and Safety Zone topographic location (Geography) will determine Safety/Survival Zone effectiveness.
- 4. Once fire fighters are positioned inside a Safety/Survival Zone awaiting the fire, no one should leave until the fire front or threat has passe
STANDARD FIREFIGHTING ORDERS
- 1. Keep informed on fire weather conditions and forecasts.
- 2. Know what your fire is doing at all times
- 3. Base all actions on current and expected behavior of the fire.
- 4. Identify escape routes and safety zones and make them known.
- 5. Post lookouts when there is possible danger
- 6. Be alert. Keep calm. Think clearly. Act decisively.
- 7. Maintain prompt communications with your forces, your supervisor, and adjoining forces.
- 8. Give clear instructions and insure they are understood
- 9. Maintain control of your forces at all times.
- 10. Fight fire aggressively, having provided for safety first.
- 1. Fire not scouted and sized up.
- 2. In country not seen in daylight.
- 3. Safety zones and escape routes not identified.
- 4. Unfamiliar with weather and local factors influencing fire behavior
- 5. Uninformed on strategy, tactics, and hazards
- 6. Instructions and assignments not clear.
- 7. No communication link with crewmembers/supervisors.
- 8. Constructing line without safe anchor point.
- 9. Building fireline downhill with fire below.
- 10. Attempting frontal assault on fire.
- 11. Unburned fuel between you and the fire.
- 12. Cannot see main fire, not in contact with anyone who can.
- 13. On a hillside where rolling material can ignite fuel below.
- 14. Weather is getting hotter and drier.
- 15. Wind increases and/or changes direction.
- 16. Getting frequent spot fires across line.
- 17. Terrain and fuels make escape to safety zones difficult.
- 18. Taking a nap near the fire line.
ENGINE AND VEHICLE OPERATIONS: DO NOT !!
- 1. DO NOT block roadways. Always park so all other equipment can safely get by your vehicle. This may require laying a supply line to allow room for others to pass.
- 2. DO NOT park on midslope roads where fire is below your location with unburned fuel between you and the fire.
- 3. DO NOT park in or near chimneys, saddles, or draws. These topographical features will channel heat and smoke and dramatically increase the intensity of fire at your location. Generally, chimneys can be identified on roads that turn “into” the hill or slope, as opposed to roads that turn “out” when driving around a spur ridge.
- 4. DO NOT park under power lines or near exposed propane or fuel tanks.
ENGINE AND VEHICLE OPERATIONS : DO!!
- 1. Park on the opposite side of the road away from the fire and have a protector line charged and in position.
- 2. Use natural fire barriers (rocky areas, cut banks, ridges, and noncombustible structures) to your advantage to “shield” your engine from convected and radiant heat.
- 3. Park engine in a Safety or Survival Zone and pointing in direction of egress. This will assist egress when reassigned to other areas.
- 4. Use a scout, if necessary, to Recon ahead rather than place your engine in an unsafe position (STL vehicles and patrols work great for Recon).
- 5. Recon ahead of your engine when driving in unfamiliar areas. Many homes in wildland areas have overhead obstructions and private bridges, leach fields, and underground septic tanks that will not support the weight of an engine.
- 6. Keep headlights and warnings light on for better visibility.
- 7. Channel water with a shovel and salvage cover (if necessary) when pumping and leaking water onto an unpaved surface. This will avoid getting your rig stuck and/or destroying the road surface.
- 8. Use water sparingly; water on wildland fires can be limited. Locate primary and secondary water sources e.g., private tanks, pools, cisterns, lakes, streams, hydrants, etc. Note: Hydrants cannot be considered reliable on most large wildland fires.
- 9. Place 2 or 3 eductors (when possible) on one engine with a reliable water source, this can dramatically increase your water supply over a single eductor.
- 10. Shut down the engine, extinguish the fire with a CO2 extinguisher (No water or Dry Chem) and notify your STL or DIVS if the air filter on your engine catches on fire.
- 11. Lay hose only when absolutely necessary. Laying hose on the ground takes time and energy, reduces flexibility, and may have to be left.
- 12. Contact your Division or Group Supervisor (or Staging Area Manager if staged) for any needs for your engine. They will relay the message to the Ground Support Unit.
Radio Transmission Inside Fire Shelters : The study that when firefighter were inside fire shelter within 50 feet of each other, they could communicated using the
VHF (Very High Frequency, 30 to 300 MHz)
Bendix-King radios and that they could not communicated using the newer?
- UHF (Ultra High Frequency, 300 to 3,000 MHz)
- Motorola Astro XTS 300 radios. In either case the radio signals were significantly weaker when the radio was used inside the fire shelter.
Hand-held radios do not work well when they are used inside a fire shelter and they do not present a risk to firefighters who try to use them there. However,
firefighters should bring their radios into their fire shelter.
The King GPH radio is a handheld VHF radio with (_____) groups and (___) channels per group. This amounts to(_____) available channels. The radio can transmit at (__) or (__) watts. It is narrowband compatible and digitally upgradeable.
- 1. 15 groups
- 2. 16 channels
- 3. 240 channles
- 4. 2 or 5 watts
San Diego Unit Repeater Tones : RED MTN
- (Fallbrook) RED MTN
- MVU (1)
- CMD 3 (9)
San Diego Unit Repeater Tones: BOUCHER MTN
- Palomar Mountain
- MVU (4)
- CMD 1 (11)
San Diego Unit Repeater Tones: WOODSON
- Ramona: MVU (8)
- CMD 2 (13)
- CMD 3 (8) LB (2)
San Diego Unit Repeater Tones: HOT SPRINGS
- Warner Springs:
- MVU (6)
- CMD 2 (12)
San Diego Unit Repeater Tones: CUYAMACA
- CUYAMACA PEAK
- MVU (3)
- CMD 1 (13)
San Diego Unit Repeater Tones: LYONS
- LYONS PEAK
- CMD 2 (14)
- CMD 3 (2)
- LB (1)
San Diego Unit Repeater Tones: Boulevard
- WHITE STAR
- MVU (2)
- CMD 1 (12)
San Diego Unit Repeater Tones: TECATE
WILDLAND FIRE SIZE-UP
- 1. SIZE
- 2. FUEL TYPE
- 3. RATE OF SPREAD
- 4. ASPECT
- 5. WINDS
- 6. STRUCTURE THREAT
- 7. POTENTIAL
- 8. HAZARDS
- 9. RESOURCE NEEDS
WILDLAND AIR OPERATIONS : Copter 1 will provide an immediate initial attack response (Flycrew and/or (_____ ) gallons of water from a fixed water tank to vegetation fires within the city and the region.
Copter 1 has a self-fill capability (hover drafting by hydraulic snorkel), fills the tank in approx (____) seconds
WATER-FILL SUPPORT : To facilitate “water-fill support” ground operations, Copter 1 carries a(____) length of (_____)inch hose (whip) with shutoff butt, designed to attach to the end of an engine company line.
- 12 foot length
- 2 ½ inch hose (whip) with shutoff butt
When Copter 1 is assigned to a vegetation fire, additional engine companies may be requested to respond to provide water fill support and or/ landing/takeoff site management. If requested, this additional engine company will respond to a location designated (____________________________) or to a site pre-identified or mutually agreed upon by the aircrew and responding Engine Company.
by the onboard helicopter crew chief or pilot,
NIGHT-TIME OPERATIONS : Copter 1 is the only helicopter approved for nighttime fire suppression missions within the City of San Diego or other incorporated Cities on a caseby-case basis. Important nighttime considerations are:
- Copter 1 will not hover-fill during nighttime conditions.
- Nighttime water drop operations will require ground engines to provide water fill support and site security.
- Water-fill support by engine companies will only occur at approved city helispots or airports.
REQUESTING FOR HELICOPTER SUPPORT: When fire helicopters are requested, the closest resources available will be dispatched or diverted from another fire to your incident depending on the potential and threat to lives and property. Remember, helicopters are most effective on the initial fire attack.
- Hazards to aircraft
- Where you are
- Your call sign
- Your tactical objective
- Aircraft call sign
- Aircraft frequencies
- Primary and secondary targets
- Wind speed and direction
OPERATING PROCEDURES (Use standard fire terminology) they are ?
- Right flank
- Left flank
- Spot fire
STRUCTURE PROTECTION GUIDELINES: Obtain Briefing: “SPORT”
- S * Situation A brief description of what is happening
- P* Priorities The most important issues
- O* Objectives What needs to be accomplished
- R *Resources Available, allocated, or already assigned
- T* Territory Area of operation (use Thomas Bros. map grids when possible) (Note: An IAP or formal briefing may not be available)
Structures are triaged into 1 of 3 categories:
- 1. Defensible. Survival Zone is present. •
- 2. Non-defensible - A Survival Zone is NOT present. •
- 3. No defense needed - Fire threat is minimal to structure.
Survival Zones are determined by: “TFT”
- 1.Topographical features:
- Convection heat kills many firefighters. Stay out chimneys, chutes, saddles! Simply stated, where the most water will drain down in mountainous areas, heat and fire will travel up. Heat from convection can intensify and accumulate for over a mile in these drainages. Cut banks, benches, lee sides, spur ridges, and below grade will keep you out of the direct convection column. Non combustible features such as large boulders, banks, walls, homes, etc. will serve as a shield from these columns. Stay out of the path of convection columns and have heat shields close by!
- 2. Fire behavior and Fuel:
- Radiant heat can also kill and cause serious injuries; it is your next concern. Identify Survival Zones that have less flammable fuels to reduce your exposure, e.g., corrals, roads, clearings, etc. Ground fuels, ladder fuels, and manmade combustible features all can produce flame lengths of 50’ or more. Your Survival Zones should be free of these fuels as possible. Watch the fire behavior- what is burning and how complete is it burning. This will give you an idea on fire intensity and flame lengths. Stay low, stay away from the fuel and have heat shields close by.