Biol 1150 Quiz 1

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Biol 1150 Quiz 1
2015-09-01 01:35:26
biology 1150 quiz
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  1. Define: Evolution
    The change in allele frequency over a period of time
  2. Define: Artificial Selection
    Selective breeding for desirable traits
  3. Define: Natural Selection
    Favored adaptive traits that lead to increased offspring production
  4. Define: Adaptive Radation
    Process in which a species or group rapidly evolves into many dif. species that occupy dif. regions or geographical zones
  5. Define: Homologous
    • Structures share similar anatomical features & embryonic development
    • Ex: Wing of Bat + flipper of whale + arm of human = all evolved from a common ancestor b/ not always performing the same function
  6. Define: Analogous structures
    • Organisms share similar structures b/ through evolving throughout diff. pathways
    • Ex: Wing of bird + wing of insect = both have similar structures & functions b/ diff. in evol. hist.
  7. Define: Deep time
    Geological concept that life on earth has evolved over several billion years
  8. Define: Relative Ages
    Fossil records of earth & evol. hist.
  9. Define: Molecular clock
    • Recent approach to date evol. events based on diff. in nucleotide sequences of DNA
    • - Mutation rate that cause genetic mutations occur @ constant rate
    • - # of diff. b/w DNA of diff. spec. = time lapse since divergence
    • Ex: Hemoglobin in Human vs. Gorillas
  10. 2 Ways to determine age of fossils
    1) Relative Dating - measuring age-dating fossils by association w/ known time periods: PreCambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, & Cenozoic; using stata in rocks

    2) Absolute dating - based on radiometric dating techniques, radioactive decay of certain isotopes; U→PB, RB→Sr, and K→Ar
  11. 3 types of fossilization
    • 1) Organisms w/ hard parts: teeth, bones, shells, & woody tissues
    • 2) Remains of most organisms are destroyed by mechanical factors: weathering, crushing, wave action; or biological factors: predators, scavengers, & decay
    • 3) Rapid burial in a medium that is capable of decaying: water, volcanic ash, tar, etc
  12. 3 types of evidence that support evol. theory?
    • 1) Species share similarities that are signs of their common ancestry: phylogeny
    • 2) There are progression of species changing over time: fossils
    • 3) Species that have traits that are remnants of past gen.: Hemoglobin in Humans & Gorillas
  13. How does embryonic develop. support evol?
    • All vertebrate embryos, esp. in early stages, are striking similar
    • 1) Post-anal tail
    • 2) somites (body segments)
    • 3) paired-pharyngeal pouches (gills)
  14. What is the objective of Exc. 1: History of Life?
    • 1) Describe the concept of deep time
    • 2) Describe how relative and absolute ages of evol. events are determined
    • 3) Describe the absolute and relative ages of various evol. events, including the age of the earth, age of the 1st prokaryotes, age of diversification of eukaryotes (Cambrian Explosion), and etc.
  15. What is the procedure of Exc. 1: Hist. of Life?
    To give the student a mental framework for thinking about the evol. & diversity of life
  16. If 4.6 bya = 4.6 m, how much does it equal in cm?
    460 cm
  17. If 1m = 100cm = ?mm
    1000 mm
  18. If 1 cm = 10mm, how much does 1cm = ?m?
  19. If 1 bya (billion years ago) = 1m, how much does 100 mya equal?
    Answer in cm
    10 cm
  20. If 1 mya = 1mm, how much does 1 thousand years equal?
    Answer in mm
    0.0001 mm
  21. How many significant extinction dates were there throughout Earth's years?
    • 3:
    • 1) P-T Extinction (250 mya) - Permian-Triassic extinction event eliminated >90% of marine species
    • 2) K-T Extinction (65 mya) - Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction of non-avian dinosaurs
    • 3) Extincting of Neanderthals (25,000 y) - H. sapiens began replacing H. neanderthalensis in Europe & Central Asia 45,000 years ago
  22. What is the importance of the Cambrian Explosion?
    550 mya, major diversification of animals, including mollusks, chordates, and arthropods
  23. Who is Carolus Linnaeus? What did he invent?
    (1707-1778) He created the binomial nomenclature that ordered organisms into Genus and Species
  24. Define: Taxonomy
    The study of principles, procedures, & rules of scientific classification & narrowing of organisms
  25. Define: Classification
    The order of living organisms into groups/taxons on the basis of associations by continguity, similarity, or both
  26. What two themes are represented in Classification?
    • 1) Defining & describing organisms
    • 2) Arranging organisms into a logical classification scheme
  27. Define: Hierarchy
    A system listed in highest order to lowest
  28. Define: Binomial nomenclature
    A system used to assign organisms a Genus & Species
  29. Come up with a mnemonic taxonomy to remember the names & hierarchy of the biological classification system:
    • Did King Phillip Cry Out For Good Soup
    • 1)Domain
    • 2) Kingdom
    • 3) Phylum
    • 4) Class
    • 5) Order
    • 6) Family
    • 7) Genus
    • 8) Species