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The change in allele frequency over a period of time
Define: Artificial Selection
Selective breeding for desirable traits
Define: Natural Selection
Favored adaptive traits that lead to increased offspring production
Define: Adaptive Radation
Process in which a species or group rapidly evolves into many dif. species that occupy dif. regions or geographical zones
- Structures share similar anatomical features & embryonic development
- Ex: Wing of Bat + flipper of whale + arm of human = all evolved from a common ancestor b/ not always performing the same function
Define: Analogous structures
- Organisms share similar structures b/ through evolving throughout diff. pathways
- Ex: Wing of bird + wing of insect = both have similar structures & functions b/ diff. in evol. hist.
Define: Deep time
Geological concept that life on earth has evolved over several billion years
Define: Relative Ages
Fossil records of earth & evol. hist.
Define: Molecular clock
- Recent approach to date evol. events based on diff. in nucleotide sequences of DNA
- - Mutation rate that cause genetic mutations occur @ constant rate
- - # of diff. b/w DNA of diff. spec. = time lapse since divergence
- Ex: Hemoglobin in Human vs. Gorillas
2 Ways to determine age of fossils
1) Relative Dating - measuring age-dating fossils by association w/ known time periods: PreCambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, & Cenozoic; using stata in rocks
2) Absolute dating - based on radiometric dating techniques, radioactive decay of certain isotopes; U→PB, RB→Sr, and K→Ar
3 types of fossilization
- 1) Organisms w/ hard parts: teeth, bones, shells, & woody tissues
- 2) Remains of most organisms are destroyed by mechanical factors: weathering, crushing, wave action; or biological factors: predators, scavengers, & decay
- 3) Rapid burial in a medium that is capable of decaying: water, volcanic ash, tar, etc
3 types of evidence that support evol. theory?
- 1) Species share similarities that are signs of their common ancestry: phylogeny
- 2) There are progression of species changing over time: fossils
- 3) Species that have traits that are remnants of past gen.: Hemoglobin in Humans & Gorillas
How does embryonic develop. support evol?
- All vertebrate embryos, esp. in early stages, are striking similar
- 1) Post-anal tail
- 2) somites (body segments)
- 3) paired-pharyngeal pouches (gills)
What is the objective of Exc. 1: History of Life?
- 1) Describe the concept of deep time
- 2) Describe how relative and absolute ages of evol. events are determined
- 3) Describe the absolute and relative ages of various evol. events, including the age of the earth, age of the 1st prokaryotes, age of diversification of eukaryotes (Cambrian Explosion), and etc.
What is the procedure of Exc. 1: Hist. of Life?
To give the student a mental framework for thinking about the evol. & diversity of life
If 4.6 bya = 4.6 m, how much does it equal in cm?
If 1m = 100cm = ?mm
If 1 cm = 10mm, how much does 1cm = ?m?
If 1 bya (billion years ago) = 1m, how much does 100 mya equal?
Answer in cm
If 1 mya = 1mm, how much does 1 thousand years equal?
Answer in mm
How many significant extinction dates were there throughout Earth's years?
- 1) P-T Extinction (250 mya) - Permian-Triassic extinction event eliminated >90% of marine species
- 2) K-T Extinction (65 mya) - Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction of non-avian dinosaurs
- 3) Extincting of Neanderthals (25,000 y) - H. sapiens began replacing H. neanderthalensis in Europe & Central Asia 45,000 years ago
What is the importance of the Cambrian Explosion?
550 mya, major diversification of animals, including mollusks, chordates, and arthropods
Who is Carolus Linnaeus? What did he invent?
(1707-1778) He created the binomial nomenclature that ordered organisms into Genus and Species
The study of principles, procedures, & rules of scientific classification & narrowing of organisms
The order of living organisms into groups/taxons on the basis of associations by continguity, similarity, or both
What two themes are represented in Classification?
- 1) Defining & describing organisms
- 2) Arranging organisms into a logical classification scheme
A system listed in highest order to lowest
Define: Binomial nomenclature
A system used to assign organisms a Genus & Species
Come up with a mnemonic taxonomy to remember the names & hierarchy of the biological classification system:
- Did King Phillip Cry Out For Good Soup
- 2) Kingdom
- 3) Phylum
- 4) Class
- 5) Order
- 6) Family
- 7) Genus
- 8) Species