behavioral sciences set 4 part 2

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behavioral sciences set 4 part 2
2015-09-01 14:20:24

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  1. consciousness
    one's level of awareness of both the world and one's own existence within that world
  2. accepted states of consciousness
    alertness, sleep, dreaming, and altered states (sleep, hypnosis)
  3. alertness
    • awake and able to think
    • perceive, process, access info and express info verbally
    • fibers from prefrontal cortext communicate with reticular formation (in brainstem) to keep cortex awake and alert
  4. EEG (electroencephalogram)
    • test used to monitor electrical activity in the brain
    • consists of beta, alpha, theta and delta waves
  5. beta waves
    when we are awake, high frequency and occur when the person is alert or doing something that requires concentration
  6. alpha
    are awake but relaxing with our eyes closed, somewhat slower than beta waves, more synchronized than beta waves
  7. stage 1
    • when you doze off
    • theta waves (slower frequences and higher voltages on EEG)
  8. Stage 2
    EEG with theta waves (sleep spindles and K complexes)
  9. Stage 3 and 4
    • slow-wave sleep (SWS) EEG activity grows progressively slower until only a few sleep waves per second are seen
    • delta waves (low frequency high voltage)
    • SWS associated with cognitive recovery and memory consolidation, increased growth hormone release
  10. non-rapid eye movement (non-REM)
    • stages1-4
    • REM is interspersed between cycles of Non-REM
  11. paradoxical sleep
    • REM sleep
    • arousal levels reach that of wakefuleness (heart rate, breathing and EEG mimic wake), but the muscles are paralyzed (person asleep)
    • dreaming and memory consolidation
  12. sleep cycle
    • single complete progression through the sleep stages
    • length of sleep cycle increase as we age
  13. why does decreasing light increase release of melatonin?
    retina has direct connections to hypothalamus, which controls the pineal gland, decreasing light can cause the release of melatonin from pineal gland
  14. cortisol
    • steroid hormone produced in the adrenal cortex
    • increase light causes release of CRF (from hypothalamus, which causes release of ACTH, which stimulates cortisol release
    • contributes to wakefulness
  15. activation synthesis theory
    dreams are caused by widespread random activation of neural circuitry
  16. problem solving dream theory
    solve problems while you aresleeping
  17. cognitive process dream theory
    dreams are sleeping counterpart of steam of consciousness
  18. neurocognitive models of dreaming
    seek to unify biological and psychological perspectives
  19. dyssomnias
    disorders that make it difficult to fall asleep, stay asleep or avoid sleep
  20. parasomnias
    abnormal movements or behaviors during sleep (night terrors and sleepwalking)
  21. insomnia
    difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep
  22. narcolepsy
    lack of voluntary control over the onset of sleep
  23. cataplexy
    loss of muscle control and sudden intrusion of REM sleep during waking hours, usually caused by emotional trigger
  24. sleep paralysis
    sensation of being unable to move despite being awake
  25. hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations
    hallucinations when going to sleep or awakening
  26. sleep apnea
    • inability to breathe during sleep
    • obstructive sleep apnea: when physical blockage in pharynx
    • central sleep apnea: when brain fails to send signals to diaphragm to breath
  27. night terrors
    intense anxiety that occuring during slow wave sleep in children
  28. REM rebound
    an earlier onset and greater during of REM sleep compared to normal after sleep deprivation
  29. hypnosis
    a person appears to be in control of his or her normal functions, but is in a highly suggestible state
  30. meditation
    resembles stage 1 of sleep on EEG