behavior sciences set 4 part 3

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xijunzhu
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behavior sciences set 4 part 3
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2015-09-01 14:39:11
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  1. depressants
    reduce nervous system activity, resulting in sense of relaxation and reduced anxiety
  2. alcohol
    • increases GABA receptor (causes hyper polarization of membrane, which causes brain inhibition)
    • centers of brain that prevent inappropriate behavior area also depressed
    • increase dopamine levels (euphoria)
  3. gaba
    • primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain
    • its receptor is a chloride channel that causes hyper polarization of the membrane
  4. wernicke-korsadoff syndrome
    deficiency in thiamine (B1) and characterized by severe memory impairment with changes in mental status and loss of motor skills
  5. barbiturates (replaced with benzodiazepines)
    • anxiety reducing (anxiolytic) and sleep medications
    • highly addictive
  6. stimulates
    • increase in arousal in nervous system
    • increase frequency of action potentials
  7. amphtamines
    increasing release of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin at the synapse and decreasing their reuptake
  8. cocaine
    • decreases reuptake of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin
    • has anesthetic and vasoconstrictive properties
    • may be used in surgeries in highly vascularized areas
  9. ecstasy
    hallucinogen combined with amphetamine
  10. opiates
    • naturally occurring forms of opium
    • include morphine and codeine
  11. opioids
    semisynthetic derivates of opium include oxycodone, hydrocodone and heroin
  12. opiates/opioids
    • bind to opioid receptors in the peripheral and central nervous system, causing a decreased reaction to pain and sense of euphoria
    • overdose causes death by respiratory suppression where brain stops sending signals to breathe
  13. heroin
    when injected body rapidly metabolizes heroin to morphine
  14. hallucinogens
    • LSD
    • distortions of reality and fantasy, enhancement of sensory experiences and introspection (observation of one's own mental and emotional processes)
  15. marijuana
    • active chemical is THC 
    • THC increases GABA activity (causing neural inhibition) and dopamine (pleasure)
  16. drug addition
    • related to mesolimbic reward pathway (one of four dopaminergic pathways in the brain)
    • pathway normally involved in motivation and emotional response (activation accounts for positive reinforcement of substance use)
  17. cocktail party phenomenon
    different interpretation of selective attention, where you are engaged in convo and then someone calls your name and you draw your attention to that
  18. divided attention
    ability to perform multiple tasks at the same time
  19. controlled processing
    • effortful
    • opposite of automatic processing
  20. five components of language
    • phonology
    • morphology
    • semantics
    • syntax
    • pragmatics
  21. phonology
    actual sound of language
  22. categorical perception
    ability to make distinction between subtle differences in sounds for example
  23. morphology
    structure of words (words are made up of re-design)
  24. semantics
    association of a meaning with a word
  25. syntax
    how words are put together to form sentences
  26. pragmatics
    dependence of language on context and preexisting knowledge
  27. prosody
    the rhythm, cadence and inflection of our voices
  28. babbling
    age of 9-12
  29. about one word per month
    12 to 18 months
  30. explosion of language and combining words
    18 to 20 months
  31. 2 to 3 years
    longer sentences (3 words or more)
  32. 5 years
    language rules largely mastered
  33. errors of growth
    child applies a grammatical rule in a situation where it does not apply (runned instead of ran)
  34. nativist theory
    • children has innate ability for language
    • this ability called language acquisition device (LAD), theoretical pathway in the brain that allows infants to process and absorb language rules
  35. sensitive period
    • when environment input has maximal effect
    • critical period for language acquisition between two and puberty
  36. learning theory
    • language acquisition by operant conditioning (reinforcement)
    • cannot explain the explosion of vocab during childhood
  37. social interactionist theory
    • language development focuses on the interplay between biological and social processes (driven by child's desire to communicate and behave in a social manner)
    • as child interacts, certain brain circuits are reinforced while others are de-emphasized
  38. Whorfian hypothesis/linguistic relativity hypothesis
    • our perception of reality is determined by the content of language
    • people with more words for snow are better at discriminating subtleties between diff types of snow
  39. broca's area
    • left hemisphere
    • inferior frontal gyrus of frontal lobe
    • controls motor function of speech via connections with motor cortex
  40. wernicke's area
    • superior temporal gyrus of the temporal lobe
    • language comprehension
  41. arcuate fasciculus
    a bundle of axons that connects Broca's area and Wernicke's area that allows for appropriate association between language comprehension and speech production
  42. aphasia
    deficit of language production or comprehension
  43. broca's aphasia
    absent ability to produce spoken langugage
  44. conduction aphasia
    • when arcuate fascicles is affected
    • speech production and comprehension are intact, patient is unable to repeat something that has been said b/c the connection between these two regions are lost

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