Equine- Non-Infect. Lower Airway Dz

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Author:
Mawad
ID:
307184
Filename:
Equine- Non-Infect. Lower Airway Dz
Updated:
2015-09-01 17:02:21
Tags:
vetmed equine
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Description:
vetmed equine non-infectious lower airway diseases
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  1. ROA occurs in _______ horses, predominantly in the ________ region in areas with ________ climates.
    mature; northern hemisphere; moist, cool
  2. With RAO, there is forced __________ and a hypertrophied __________.
    exhalation; external abdominal oblique m.
  3. ROA is a(n) ________ airway disease; inhaled particles activate ________.
    innate and acquired immune systems and neutrophil chemotaxis
  4. What are the 3 hallmarks of RAO?
    airway inflammation due to neutrophil accumulation, bronchoconstriction due to increased airway reactivity, mucus production
  5. What are triggers for RAO flare-ups? (8)
    mold spores, endotoxin, toxins, microbes, forage mites, dust, heat/humidity, dry/cold air
  6. Describe the progression of RAO. (4)
    small airway obstruction, expiratory small airway collapse, peripheral air trapping, hypoxemia
  7. What are the clinical signs of RAO? (5)
    episodic and progressive cough, expiratory effort, nostril flaring at rest, nasal d/c, exercise intolerance
  8. How do you diagnose RAO? (6)
    history, auscultation, re-breathing exam, clin path (rule out pneumonia), bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytology, radiography
  9. What is the confirmatory test of choice for RAO?
    bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytology (BALF)
  10. What is considered diagnostic for RAO when performing BALF cytology as the confirmatory test?
    >20% non-degenerate neutrophils
  11. How do you manage RAO with medication? (7)
    OUTSIDE/no stabling, stall should be on the end/well ventilated, wet bedding, NO STRAW, feed low-particulate forage (if silage, vaccinate for botulism), don't clean with horse in stall
  12. How do you manage RAO with medications? (3)
    corticosteroids (dex, prednisolone), bronchodilators, muscarinic antagonists (atropine)
  13. Why should you use a short-acting anticholinergic (atropine) instead of a long-acting one (epinephrine)?
    long-acting will cause constipation--> obstruction colic
  14. What can you do for an RAO case in respiratory distress? (3)
    intranasal oxygen immediately, give bronchodilators parenterally, dexamethasone
  15. How do you keep chronic, stable cases of RAO under control? (2)
    inhalent Fluticasone/Combivent, oral dexamethasone
  16. Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) occurs in _______ horses, who are normal ________ and show signs when _________.
    young; at rest; performing
  17. What are the clinical signs of IAD? (5)
    poor performance, exercise intolerance, delayed recovery, cough, nasal d/c
  18. How can you diagnose IAD?
    BALF cytology- >5% neut, >1% eos, >2% metachromatic (mast cells)
  19. How is IAD treated? (4)
    environmental modification, corticosteroids, bronchodilators, mast cell stabilizers/inhibitors (for metachromatic)
  20. Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage is induced by ____________; it is/is not curable; it is treated with __________.
    strenuous exercise; is not; furosemide

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