earthquake vocabulary

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earthquake vocabulary
2015-09-02 08:35:11
rochambeau earth science mierzejewski earthquake

earthquake vocabulary
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  1. stress
    A force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume.
  2. tension
    Stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle.
  3. compression
    Stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks.
  4. shearing
    Stress that pushes masses of rock in opposite directions, in a sideways movement.
  5. normal fault
    A type of fault where the hanging wall slides downward; caused by tension in the crust.
  6. hanging wall
    The block of rock that forms the upper half of a fault Hangs over the fault line).
  7. footwall
    The block of rock that forms the lower half of a fault (Beneath the faultline).
  8. reverse fault
    A type of fault where the hanging wall slides upward; caused by compression in the crust.
  9. strike-slip fault
    A type of fault in which rocks on either side move past each other sideways with little up or down motion.
  10. anticline
    An upward fold in rock formed by compression of Earth’s crust.
  11. syncline
    A downward fold in rock formed by compression in Earth’s crust.
  12. plateau
    A large area of flat land elevated high above sea level.
  13. earthquake
    The shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth’s surface.
  14. focus
    The point beneath Earth’s surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake.
  15. epicenter
    The point on Earth’s surface directly above an earthquake’s focus.
  16. P wave
    A type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground. Can travel through liquids and solids. aka pressure wave, primary wave, compression wave
  17. S wave
    A type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side. aka secondary wave. Can travel through solids, but not liquids.
  18. surface wave
    A type of seismic wave that forms when P waves and S waves reach Earth’s surface. Move more slowly than P waves and S waves, but they can produce severe ground movements. Some surface waves make the ground roll like ocean waves. Other surface waves shake buildings from side to side.
  19. Mercalli scale
    A scale that rates earthquakes according to their intensity and how much damage they cause at a particular place.
  20. magnitude
    The measurement of an earthquake’s strength based on seismic waves and movement along faults.
  21. Richter scale
    A scale that rates an earthquake’s magnitude based on the size of its seismic waves.
  22. seismograph
    A device that records ground movements caused by seismic waves as they move through Earth.
  23. moment magnitude scale
    A scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total energy released by an earthquake.
  24. seismogram
    The record of an earthquake’s seismic waves produced by a seismograph.
  25. friction
    The force that opposes the motion of one surface as it moves across another surface.
  26. liquefaction
    The process by which an earthquake’s violent movement suddenly turns loose soil into liquid mud.
  27. aftershock
    An earthquake that occurs after a larger earthquake in the same area.
  28. tsunami
    A large wave produced by an earthquake on the ocean floor.
  29. base-isolated building
    A building mounted on bearings designed to absorb the energy of an earthquake.