Fluid and Electrolytes

Card Set Information

Author:
tmlindquist
ID:
307215
Filename:
Fluid and Electrolytes
Updated:
2015-09-27 14:35:37
Tags:
MedSurg
Folders:
MedSurg
Description:
Fluid and Electrolyte lecture notes
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user tmlindquist on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Normal range for Sodium
    135-145
  2. Normal range for Potassium
    3.5-5
  3. Normal range for Calcium
    8.5-10.5
  4. Normal range for Phosphorus
    2.6-4.6
  5. Normal range for Magnesium
    1.6-2.6
  6. What is sensible fluid loss?
    Measurable fluid loss via urine or vomit
  7. What is insensible fluid loss?
    Unmeasurable fluid loss via breathing, sweating, etc.
  8. Causes for hyponatremia
    • diruretic therapy
    • burns
    • diaphoresis
    • vomiting
    • gastric lavage
    • diarrhea
    • laxative abuse
    • SIADH - Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion
  9. Causes for hypernatremia
    • hypertonic fluid administration
    • tube feedings
    • excessive dietary intake
    • DI - diabetes insepitus
    • water loss in excess of sodium
  10. S/S of hyponatremia
    neurologic and musculoskeletal sx
  11. S/S of hypern
    atremia
    • "If osmo is high, you're dry"
    • thirst
    • tachy
    • dry mucus membranes
    • lethargy
    • hyperactive reflexes
    • seizures
  12. How to estimate serum osmolarity
    double sodium value
  13. Normal serum osmolarity
    270-295
  14. Functions of sodium in the body
    • helps with impulse transmission in nerve fibers
    • influences potassium and chloride levels
  15. Functions of potassium
    • required for metabolic processes
    • maintains acid-base balance
  16. Causes of hypokalemia (low potassium)
    • vomiting
    • diarrhea
    • laxative abuse
    • gastric lavage
    • insensible fluid loss
    • dialysis
    • alcoholism
  17. S/S of hypokalemia
    • musculoskeletal alterations
    • hyporeflexia
  18. Causes of hyperkalemia
    • replacement therapy
    • excessive use of salt substitutes
    • CKD/ARF (acute kidney disease, acute renal failure)
    • cell damage
  19. S/S of hyperkalemia
    • musculoskeletal alterations
    • life-threatening arrhythmias
  20. Functions of Calcium
    • bone strength
    • blood clotting
    • cell structure
    • nerve, muscle and cardiac conduction
  21. Causes of hypocalcemia
    • anorexia
    • ARF (acute renal failure)
    • vit D deficiency
    • pancreatitis
    • alcohol abuse
    • low PTH (parathyroid hormone)
  22. S/S of hypocalcemia
    • hyperactive contraction of muscle
    • positive Trousseau sign (increasing pressure via BP cuff results in hand twitch)
    • positive Chvostek's sign (tap cheek muscle causes a twitch)
  23. Primary reason patients die from alcohol abuse/withdrawal
    • electrolyte imbalance
    • monitor lab values closely!
  24. Functions of Phosphorus
    • Inverse with calcium
    • produces energy
    • bone strength
  25. Causes of hypophosphatemia
    • loss from GI or GU
    • alcohol abuse
    • hyperparathyroidism
    • DKA - diabetic ketoacidosis
    • phosphate binders
  26. S/S of hypophosphatemia
    • neurologic
    • hematologic
    • muscle weakness
  27. Causes for hyperphosphatemia
    • Increased absorption
    • renal insufficiency
    • hypoparathyroidism
    • osteoporosis
  28. S/S of hyperphosphatemia
    muscle weakness
  29. Functions of Magnesium
    • assists in muscle contraction
    • vasodilation
  30. Causes of hypomagnesemia
    • GI loss
    • burns
    • loop diuretics
    • alcohol abuse
  31. S/S of hypomagnesemia
    hyperactive muscles
  32. Causes of hypermagnesemia
    • medications
    • hemodialysis
  33. S/S of hypermagnesemia
    • musculoskeletal alterations
    • life-threatening
  34. Imbalances of these electrolytes cause most cardiac arrhythmias
    Magnesium and potassium
  35. S/S of hypovolemia
    • dry mucus membranes
    • tachy
    • decreased BP
    • flattened neck veins
    • decreased turgor
  36. S/S of hypervolemia
    • JVD
    • CHF
    • pulmonary edema
    • bounding pulses
    • edema
  37. Isotonic solutions: use, osmolarity and examples
    • Use: for hypovolemia
    • Osmolarity: equal to serum; stays within vessel
    • Examples: 0.9% Normal Saline, Lactated Ringers, D5W

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview