behavior sciences set 5

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behavior sciences set 5
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2015-09-08 10:44:09
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  1. motivation
    driving force behind our actions
  2. intrinsic motivation
    driven by interest in a task or pure enjoyment
  3. instincts
    innate, fixed patterns of behavior in response to stimuli
  4. instinct theory of motivation
    people are driven to do certain behaviors based on evolutionarily programmed instincts
  5. arousal
    the psychological and physiological state of being awake and reactive to stimuli
  6. arousal theory of motivation
    people perform actions in order to maintain an optimal level of arousal: seeking to increase arousal when it falls below optimal level
  7. Yerkes-Dodson law
    • U shaped function between level of arousal and performance.
    • Performance is worst at extremes of arousal
  8. drives
    • internal states of tension that activate particular behaviors focused on goals
    • don't need external factors to motivate behavior
  9. secondary and primary drives
    primary drives: motivate us to sustain necessary biological processes, while secondary drives are those that motivate us to fulfill nonbiological desires.
  10. drive reduction theory of motivation
    motivation is based on goal of eliminating uncomfortable states
  11. need based theory of motivation
    how we allocate our energy and resources to satisfy our needs
  12. self-determination theory
    need for autonomy, need for competence (complete and excel at difficult tasks) and relatedness
  13. Maslow's hierarchy of needs
    • lowest is physiological
    • safely
    • love/belonging
    • esteem
    • self-actualization (need to realize one's fullest potential)
  14. incentive theory
    behavior is motivated by desire to pursue rewards and to avoid punishments
  15. expectancy-value theory
    amount of motivated needed to reach a goal is the result of both the individual's expectation of success in reaching the goal and degree to which she values succeeding at the goal
  16. opponent-process theory
    • theory of motivation that explains continuous drug use
    • when a drug is taken repeatedly the body will attempt to counteract the effects of the drug by changing its physiology (body may increase arousal, which will increase withdrawal and increase dependence on the drug)
  17. tolerance
    decrease in perceived drug effect over time
  18. emotion
    natural instinctive state of mind derived from one's circumstances, mood or relationship with others
  19. three elements of emotion
    physiological response, behavioral response and cognitive response
  20. cognitive response of emotion
    • subjective interpretation of the feeling being experienced
    • determination of one's emotion is largely based on memories of past experiences and perception of the cause of the emotion
  21. James-Lange Theory of emotion
    • stimulus results in physiological arousal, which leads to secondary response in which the emotion is labeled (car cuts you off, you increase in temp, that's called your emotion anger)
    • predicts that patients w/o sympathetic response (like patients with spinal cord injuries) would experience less emotion
  22. cannon bard theory of emotion
    • physical arousal and feeling an emotion occur at the same time, thus severing the afferent nervous (feedback) should not alter the emotion experienced
    • cognitive and physiological components occur at the same time and result in the behavioral component
  23. schachter-singer theory
    • both arousal and labeling of arousal based on environment must occur in order for an emotion to be experienced. 
    • to feel an emotion, one must consciously analyze the environment in relation to nervous system arousal
  24. James Lange first response and second
    • first: nervous system arousal
    • second: conscious emotion
  25. Cannon-Bard first and second response
    • first: nervous system arousal and conscious emotion
    • second: action
  26. schachter-singer first and second response
    • first: nervous system arousal and cognitive appraisal 
    • second: conscious emotion
  27. limbic system
    • below the cerebrum on either side of the thalamus
    • plays large role in motivation and emotion
  28. amygdala
    • processes the environment
    • associated with fear and interprets facial expressions
  29. thalamus
    preliminary sensory processing station and routes info to cortex
  30. hypothalamus
    • below the thalamus
    • synthesizes and releases variety of neurotransmitters (serves homeostatic functions, modulates emotion)
  31. hippocampus
    • creating longterm memories
    • retrieving emotional memories is key in producing emotional states
  32. emotional memory
    • storage of actual feelings of emotion associated with an event (implicit-sensations of anxiety and unease)
    • explicit is the story, what happened, the scenario was traumatic
  33. prefrontal cortex
    planning intricate cognitive functions, anterior portion of the frontal lobes
  34. dorsal prefrontal cortex
    attention and cognition
  35. ventral prefrontal cortex
    connects with regions of the brain responsible for experiencing emotion
  36. ventromedial prefrontal cortex
    decision making and controlling emotional responses from the amygdala
  37. cognitive appraisal
    • subjective evaluation of a situation that induces stress
    • two stages: primary and secondary
  38. primary appraisal
    • initial evaluation of situation
    • if threat, secondary appraisal (directed at evaluating whether the organism can cope with the stress
  39. secondary appraisal
    evaluation of harm (damage caused), threat (future damage) and challenge (potential to overcome and benefit)
  40. reappraisal
    constant monitoring (perception of being followed)
  41. stressor
    biological element, external condition or event that leads to stress response
  42. social readjustment rating scale
    measure in life change units, awards points to life stress events
  43. general adaptation syndrome
    • sequence of physiological responses
    • consists of alarm, resistance and exhaustion stages
  44. alarm
    • initial reaction to stressor and activation of sympathetic nervous system
    • hypothalamus stimulates pituitary to secret ACTH, which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol
    • hypothalamus activates adrenal medulla (produce epinephrine and norepinephrine)
  45. resistance
    the continuous release of hormones allows the sympathetic nervous system to remain engaged to fight the stressor
  46. exhaustion
    when body can no longer maintain an elevated response with sympathetic nervous system activity

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