What is the primary reproductive hormone during the follicular phase?
What is the primary reproductive hormone during the luteal phase?
What are the 4 stages of the estrous cycle?
proestrus, estrus, metestrus, diestrus
What is proestrus?
transition from period of progesterone dominance to estrogen dominance
What is estrus?
period of sexual receptivity and mating
What is metestrus?
transition from estrogen dominance to progesterone dominance; ovulation and fully functioning CL
What is diestrus?
period of maximal luteal function
What is anestrus, and what are potential causes of it?
female no longer exhibits regular cycles; pregnancy, lactation, presence of offspring, season, stress, disease
The hypothalamus releases ________, which causes the anterior pituitary to release ________, which causes __________ to begin developing/growing.
GnRH; FSH (small amt LH); small follicles
Small follicles that have been recruited secrete low levels of ________, which subsequently allows for _______ secretion, which causes the __________.
estradiol; FSH; follicles to grow
During the selection phase, one follicle grows large enough to recruit ________; this follicle releases _______ to suppress _______; tonic LH secretion supports growth of the _________ and the others become ________.
Tumors of gonadal stroma result in elevated _________, which causes... (3)
inhibin; anestrus, nymphomania, or stallion-like behavior
_________ are a type of germ cell neoplasia.
What are the 2 portions of a granulosa theca cell tumor?
solid portion and cystic/fluid portion
Ho do you grossly diagnose an ovarian teratoma?
bone, cartilage, and hair in the ovary
What are the pre-disposing factors for uterine prolapse?
prolonged dystocia with forced traction, RP, hypocalcemia, hyperestrogenism
What are the 3 causes of uterine hemorrhage in a bitch?
estrus and proestrus, endometrial hyperplasia
How does rupture of the middle uterine artery present in mares?
colic, large amount of hemorrhage in the broad ligament (necropsy)
Cystic endometrial hyperplasia in the bitch causes ________ and __________ of the __________.
hyperplasia; cystic dilation; endometrial glands
Cystic endometrial hyperplasia in the bitch is often associated with __________; it requires _________ and upregulation of ___________, followed by induction of hyperplasia by __________ from a ___________.