Repro- Estrus and F Repro Patho

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Mawad
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307272
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Repro- Estrus and F Repro Patho
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2015-09-05 11:05:02
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vetmed reproduction estrus
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vetmed reproduction
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  1. What are the types of cyclicity, and what are they governed by?
    polyestrus (cycle in set time increments), seasonally polyestrus (governed by daylight), monoestrus (one cycle per year)
  2. Describe the effect of decreasing photoperiod on short-day breeders.
    decreased light--> increased melatonin from pineal gland--> increased ovarian activity
  3. Describe the effect of decreasing photoperiod on long-day breeders.
    decreased light--> increased melatonin from pineal gland--> decreased ovarian activity
  4. What are the phases of the estrous cycle?
    follicular phase (estrus), luteal phase (diestrus)
  5. What is the primary reproductive hormone during the follicular phase?
    estradiol
  6. What is the primary reproductive hormone during the luteal phase?
    progesterone
  7. What are the 4 stages of the estrous cycle?
    proestrus, estrus, metestrus, diestrus
  8. What is proestrus?
    transition from period of progesterone dominance to estrogen dominance
  9. What is estrus?
    period of sexual receptivity and mating
  10. What is metestrus?
    transition from estrogen dominance to progesterone dominance; ovulation and fully functioning CL
  11. What is diestrus?
    period of maximal luteal function
  12. What is anestrus, and what are potential causes of it?
    female no longer exhibits regular cycles; pregnancy, lactation, presence of offspring, season, stress, disease
  13. The hypothalamus releases ________, which causes the anterior pituitary to release ________, which causes __________ to begin developing/growing.
    GnRH; FSH (small amt LH); small follicles
  14. Small follicles that have been recruited secrete low levels of ________, which subsequently allows for _______ secretion, which causes the __________.
    estradiol; FSH; follicles to grow
  15. During the selection phase, one follicle grows large enough to recruit ________; this follicle releases _______ to suppress _______; tonic LH secretion supports growth of the _________ and the others become ________.
    LH receptors; inhibin; FSH; dominant follicle; atretic
  16. During the dominance phase, the dominant follicle reaches maximum size and secretes large amounts of ________ and ________; there is an ________, which triggers _________.
    estradiol; inhibin; LH surge; ovulation
  17. With increased progesterone, you cannot have an _________, therefore no _________.
    LH surge; ovulation
  18. After ovulation, there is high _________ because...
    progesterone; CL is present (from ovulation to luteolysis)
  19. Theca cells produce _________, which enters granulosa cells to be converted to _________, which affects the repro tract and brain.
    testosterone; estradiol
  20. Within the CL, large luteal cells develop from ________ and secrete the majority of the _________; small luteal cells develop from __________.
    granulosa cells; progesterone; theca cells
  21. What species are induced ovulaters?
    ferrets, cats, camelids, rabbits
  22. During the luteal phase, if pregnancy has occured, _________ is continuously released to decrease ________, suppress _________, and ___________.
    progesterone; GnRH; further ovulation; sustain the pregnancy
  23. During the luteal phase, if mating and pregnancy have not occurred, the endometrial lining releases _______, which...
    prostaglandin F2alpha; lyses the CL--> removes prostaglandin (brakes of cycle)--> cycle resumes
  24. Demise of the CL results in formation of the ___________.
    corpus albicans (nonfunctional)
  25. A cyst on the outside of the ovary that originates from embryonic remnant; usually clinically incidental finding.
    parovarian cyst
  26. A cyst on the inside of the ovary.
    ovarian cyst
  27. What are the 3 non-follicularly derived types of ovarian cysts?
    cystic rete ovarii, cystic subepithelial surface structures (SES), germinal inclusion cysts
  28. Cystic rete ovarii occurs when ___________ are left within the ovary.
    embryonic remnants of the mesonephric duct
  29. Cystic SES only occurs in ______.
    dogs
  30. Germinal inclusion cysts occur in _________ when ________ is trapped beneath the surface of the ovary, usually near the _________.
    mares; peritoneum; ovulation fossa
  31. Cystic follicular disease develops from ___________; they are thought to be caused by _____________.
    anovulatory cystic follicle(s); absence or mistiming of the LH surge
  32. What is the biggest determining factor of cystic follicular disease?
    size; 2cm in cows, 1cm in sheep/goats/pigs, 0.75cm in dogs
  33. What is a luteal cyst?
    one that lutinized but did not ovulate; filled with fluid and luteal tissue
  34. What are the 5 categories of ovarian neoplasia?
    surface epithelial neoplasms, tumors of gonadal stroma, germ cell neoplasms, miscellaneous and metastatic neoplasms
  35. What 2 types of surface epithelial neoplasms occur in dogs?
    cystadenomas (benign), adenocarcinomas (malignant)
  36. Surface epithelial neoplasms arise from __________ and occur in _________.
    subepithelial surface structures; canines
  37. ____________ are tumors of gonadal stroma that occur in __(3)__.
    Granulosa-theca cell tumors; equine, canine, bovine
  38. Tumors of gonadal stroma result in elevated _________, which causes... (3)
    inhibin; anestrus, nymphomania, or stallion-like behavior
  39. _________ are a type of germ cell neoplasia.
    Teratomas
  40. What are the 2 portions of a granulosa theca cell tumor?
    solid portion and cystic/fluid portion
  41. Ho do you grossly diagnose an ovarian teratoma?
    bone, cartilage, and hair in the ovary
  42. What are the pre-disposing factors for uterine prolapse?
    prolonged dystocia with forced traction, RP, hypocalcemia, hyperestrogenism
  43. What are the 3 causes of uterine hemorrhage in a bitch?
    estrus and proestrus, endometrial hyperplasia
  44. How does rupture of the middle uterine artery present in mares?
    colic, large amount of hemorrhage in the broad ligament (necropsy)
  45. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia in the bitch causes ________ and __________ of the __________.
    hyperplasia; cystic dilation; endometrial glands
  46. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia in the bitch is often associated with __________; it requires _________ and upregulation of ___________, followed by induction of hyperplasia by __________ from a ___________.
    pyometra; estrogen priming; progesterone receptors; progesterone; functioning CL
  47. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia in the cow is associated with _________ and __________.
    follicular cysts; granulosa-theca cell tumors
  48. Endometriosis occurs in ____________.
    menstruating primates only
  49. Describe endometriosis.
    explanted endometrial tissue in serosal surfaces of other organs
  50. Endometrial polyps are most common in __(2)__; it is a pedunculated mass made of ___(2)___, but it is ______.
    bitches and queens; glands and stroma; benign
  51. Hydrometra and mucometra and usually a result of...
    an obstruction of the uterine horn, cervix, or vaginal lumen
  52. A serosal inclusion cyst is a pinched off fold of _________; they are located on the ____________.
    perimetrium; outside of the uterus (NOT ovaries)
  53. Endometritis is inflammation of the ___________; metritis is inflammation of the ___________.
    endometrium; endo- and myometria
  54. Accumulation of suppurative exudate in the lumen of the uterus with an inflammatory component.
    pyometra
  55. Endometritis in mares is mild inflammation ___________; it is usually mild but may have an affect on ____________; common etiologies are... (3)
    post-breeding; fertility; E.coli, Klebsiella, T. equigenitalis
  56. What is the etiologic agent of contagious equine metritis?
    Taylorella equigenitalis (venereal dz)
  57. Endometritis in cows usually occurs __________.
    post-partum
  58. Dogs and cats are predisposed to metritis and pyometra by ____________.
    retained CL and prolonged progesterone release
  59. In cows, pyometra causes a __________, which subsequently leads to _________, progressing to _________.
    persistent CL; endometritis; metritis
  60. Chronic endometritis consists primarily of __________ and _________; two etiologic agents are...
    fibrosis; lymphoplastic inflammation; Mycobacterium bovis, Cornebacterium psudotuberculosis
  61. Smooth muscle derives uterine neoplasm; mostly common in cows and dogs.
    leiomyomas
  62. The most common uterine neoplasm in cows is ___________; it is associated with ___________.
    lymphosarcoma; BLV
  63. Endometrial carcinoma only occurs commonly in... (2)
    rabbits and sometimes cows
  64. Describe the appearance of lymphoma in the uterus.
    uniformly white, smooth, and soft
  65. Vulvular tumefaction occurs in response to ________, which can occur with... (3)
    estrogens; cystic follicular diseases, estrogen-secreting tumors, mycotoxins
  66. Infectious pustular vuvlovaginitis is caused by ___________; there are multifocal linear areas of ________ and ________.
    bovine herpesvirus 1; ulceration; exudate
  67. Equine coital exanthema is associated with _________ and _________; it is caused by __________.
    mucosal ulceration; exudate; equine herpesvirus 3
  68. T. equigenitalis resides in the ________.
    clitoral fossa
  69. Vaginal leiomyoma in dogs can be differentiated from mucosal hyperplasia because...
    leiomyoma is incorporated into the underlying smooth m. and mucosal hyperplasia is not
  70. What are the innate immune factors of the mammary gland? (4)
    teat canal has keratin lining and smegma, lactoferrin sequesters iron, lysozyme, and leukocytes
  71. What are the acquired immune factors of the mammary gland? (3)
    IgG, IgA, complement
  72. In bovine mastitis, the _________ is more damaging than the __________.
    host response; microbe
  73. Without therapy, bovine mastitis may lead to... (2)
    marked periglandular fibrosis and alveolar epithelial involution
  74. Acute gangrenous mastitis occurs due to infection with _________.
    staph
  75. Coliform mastitis is correlated with the level of ___________; _________ is a big risk; inflammation progresses from_________ to __________.
    environmental exposure; endotoxemia; serous; hemorrhagic
  76. Mammary fibroepithelial hyperplasia occurs in __________; it can be induced by __________; often resolves.
    young cycling or pregnant cats; megesterol acetate (progesterone analog)
  77. _________ may represent 50% of all neoplasms in the bitch.
    mammary tumors
  78. Epithelial mammary tumors are ___________; myoepithelial mammary tumors are __________; mixed mammary tumors contain __________.
    adenomas (benign); adenocarcinomas (malignant); bone
  79. How can you lower the risk for mammary tumors in dogs and cats?
    dogs-spay before first cycle; cats- impossible
  80. Third most common neoplasia in female cats.
    mammary tumors (85-90% of which are malignant and metastasize)

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