Drug class

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  1. Alkylating agents
    • Busulfan (Busulfex, Myleran)
    • Carboplatin (Paraplatin)
    • Chlorambucil (Leukeran) 
    • Cisplatin (Platinol-AQ)
    • Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)
    • ifosfamide (Ifex)
  2. Alkylating agents mechanism of action
    Bond with DNA and RNA and protein molecules leading to impaired DNA replication, RNA transcript, and cell functioning all resulting in cell death
  3. Alkylating Agent cell cycle specificity
  4. Alkylating Common side effect
    • Bone marrow suppression,
    • N/V
    • cystitis (cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide),
    • stomatitis
    • aloplecia
    • gonadal suppression
    • renal toxicity (cisplatin)
    • secondary malignancies
  5. Nitrosoureas
    • Carmustine (BCNU (BiCNU,Gliadel)
    • lomustine or CCNU (CeeNU)
    • streptozocin (Zanosar)
  6. Nitrosoureas Mechanism of action
    similar to alkylating agents; cross the blood brain barrier
  7. Nitrosoureas Cell cycle specificity
  8. Nitrosoureas Common side effects
    • Delayed and cumulative myelosuppression especially thrombocytopenia; (BMS)
    • N/V,
    • pulmonary,
    • hepatic (liver damage)
    • renal changes
  9. Topoisomerase I Inhibitor
    • Irinotecan (Camptosar)
    • Topotecan (Hycamtin)
  10. Topoisomerase II Inhibitors
    • Etoposide (Etopohos, VePesid)
    • Teniposide (Vumon, VM-26)
  11. Topoisomerase Mechanism of Action
    Induce breaks in the DNA strand by binding to enzyme topoisomerase, preventing cells from dividing
  12. Tropoisomerase Cell Cycle Specificity
    specific (S phase)
  13. Tropoisomerase Common side effects
    • Bone marrow suppression,
    • Diarrhea,
    • N/V,
    • flulike symptoms (topotecan),
    • rash (etoposide),
    • hepatotoxicity (teniposide)
  14. Antimetabolites
    • capecitabine (Xeloda)
    • cytarabine (DepoCyt,Tarabine)
    • Gemcitabine (Gemzar)
    • hydroxyurerea (Droxia, Hydrea)
    • methotrexate (Trexall, Rheumatrex)
  15. Antimetabolite mechanism of action
    interferes with the biosynthesis of metabolites or nucleic acids necessary for RNA and DNA synthesis, inhibits DNA replication and repair
  16. Antimetabolite Cell cycle specificity
    Specific (S phase)
  17. Antimetabolite common side effects
    • N/V,
    • diarrhea,
    • bone marrow suppression,
    • stomatitis,
    • renal toxicity (methotrexate), hepatotoxicity (6-thioguanine),
    • hand-foot syndrome (cepecitibine)
  18. Antitumor Antibiotics
    • Bleomycin (BLM,Blenoxane)
    • daunorubicin (DaunoXome)
    • doxorubicin (Adrianmycin)
    • epirbicin, idarubicin (Idamycin)
  19. Antitumor Antibiotics mechanism of action
    interferes with DNA synthesis by binding DNA; prevents RNA synthesis
  20. Antitumor Antibiotic Cell cycle specificity
  21. Antitumor Antibiotic common side efffects
    • Bone marrow suppression,
    • N/V,
    • alopecia,
    • anorexia,
    • cardiac toxicity (daunorubicin, doxorubicin),
    • red urine (doxorubicin, idarubicin, epirubicin),
    • pulmonary fibrosis (bleomycin)
  22. Mitotic Spindle Inhibitors Plant alkaloids
    • vinblastine (Velban)
    • vincristine (VCR (Oncovin)
  23. Mitotic spindle inhibitor Plant alkaloids
    mechanism of action
    Arrest metaphase by inhibiting mitotic tubular formation (spindle); inhibit DNA and protein synthesis
  24. Mitotic spindle inhibitor Plant alkaloid
    common side effects
    • Bone marrow suppression (mild with VCR,
    • peripheral neuropathies,
    • N/V
  25. Mitotic spindle inhibitor Taxanes
    • paclitaxel (Taxol)
    • docetaxel (Taxotene)
  26. Mitotic spindle inhibitor Taxanes 
    mechanism of action
    Arrest metaphase by inhibiting tubulin depolymerization
  27. Mitotic spindle inhibitor Taxanes 
    common side effect
    • Hypersensitivity reactions,
    • bone marrow suppression,
    • alopecia,
    • peripheral neuropathies,
    • muositis
  28. Mitotic spindle inhibitor Epothilones
    ixabepilone (Ixempra)
  29. Mitotic spindle inhibitor Epothilones
    mechanism of action
    Alters microtubules and inhibits mitosis
  30. Mitotic spindle inhibitor Epothilones
    common side effects
    Peripheral neuropathies, bone marrow suppression, hypersensitivity reaction, hepatic impairment
  31. Mitotic spindle inhibitor cell cycle specificity
    specific (M phase)
  32. Hormonal  Agents
    Androgens and antiandrogens, estrogens and antestrogens, progestine and antiprogestins, aromatase inhibitors, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogues, steriods
  33. Hormonal  Agents mechanism of action
    Binds to hormone receptor sites that alter cellular growth; block binding of estrogens to receptor sites (antiestrogen); Inhibit RNA synthesis; suppress cytochrome P450 system
  34. Hormonal  Agents cell cycle specificity
  35. Hormonal  Agents common side effects
    Hypercalcemia, jaundice, increased appetite, masculinization, feminization, sodium and fluid retention, vomiting, hot flashes, vaginal estrogen dryness
  36. miscellaneous agents
    • Asparaginase (Elspar), procarbazine (Matulane)
    • Arsenic trioxide (Trisenox) 

    Cell cycle varies
  37. Arsenic trioxide (Trisenox) 
    mechanism of action
    causes fragmentation of DNA resulting in cell death; in acute promyelocytic leukemia, it corrects protein changes malignant cells into normal white blood cells
  38. Arsenic trioxide (Trisenox) 
    common side effect
    N/V, electrolyte imbalance, fever, headache, cough, dyspnea, electrocardiogram abnormalities
  39. Asparaginase (Elspar), procarbazine (Matulane)
    common side effects
    anorexia, N/V, bone marrow suppression, hepatotoxicity, hyper sensitivity reaction, pancreatitis
Card Set:
Drug class
2015-09-07 21:30:01
antineoplastic agents
chapter 15 drugs
antineoplastic agents
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