1) have cells, 2) use energy, 3) interact with the environment, 4) maintain homeostasis, 5) grow and develop, 6) have genetic material, 7) population evolve
A group of individuals of the same species that occupy the same environment and can interbreed with one another.
An assemblage of populations of different species that live in the same place at the same time.
The biotic community of organisms in an area as well as the abiotic environment affecting that community.
The regions on the surface of the earth and in the atmosphere where living organisms exist.
What are the two mechanisms of evolutionary change.
Vertical descent w/ modification and horizontal gene transfer
Is a progression, accumulation of mutations; natural selection
Vertical descent w/ modification.
Substance that cannot be broken down any smaller
Smallest particle of an element
There are 25 essential elements. What are the 4 main?
O, N, H, C
What percent does the 4 main elements make up of the 25 essential elements?
Smaller amount of elements, but are critical to bodily function.
Life began how long ago?
3.5-4 billion years ago
These atoms have a different number of neutrons for each other.
Have a charge
How many electrons in the electron shells?
First ring 2 and send 8
Shared electron bonds and are non polar
Polar covalent bond
Bond where and electron is given. Creates a charge.
What does formaldehyde look like
All substances can be placed into 2 categories based on their interaction with water.
Hydrophobic and hydrophillic
Bonds between polar bonds. Water molecules
Weak bonds between non-polar molecules. Many weak bonds become stronger
Van der waals forces
Four unique properties of H2O
High energy compacity
Low density when frozen
Concentration of H+ in a solution
This mechanism of evolution involves genetic exchange, very rare, and one of the reasons for antibiotic resistance.
Horizontal Gene Transfer
Evolution can be show by diagram in two ways; what are those ways?
Tree and Web of life.
This is a diagram of vertical evolution.
Tree of life
THis is a diagram that can show vertical evolution but includes contribution of horizontal gene transfer
Web of Life
Grouping of species based on common ancestry
What are the three main domains?
Bacteria, Archea, and Eukarya
Unicellular prokaryotic- Inhabit many diverse environments on earth.
Unicellular prokaryotic- live in extreme environments
Unicellular and multiple- have internal componenets that serve different functions. Complex nucleus.
What are the four kingsdoms of Eukarya?
Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia
Molecules with predominately or entirely hydrogen-carbon bonds are called
Hydrocarbons (Poorly soluble in water)
Groups of atoms with characteristic chemical featires and properties.
Two structures with an identical molecular formula but different structures and characteristics are called
have identical bonding relationships, but the spatial positioning of the atoms differs in the two isomers
These have two hydrogen atoms linked to the two carbons of a CwC double bond may be on the same side of the carbons, in which case the C=C bond
are molecules that catalyze, or speed up, the rates of many biologically important chemical reactions
Enzymes are very specific and due to the spatial arrangements of the particular atoms in a molecule what happens with them?
Enzymes can reconize one enantimoer of a pair and not the other.
Such large molecules are formed by linking together many smaller molecules called
Monomers and polymers
the process by which two or more molecules combine into a larger one is called
When an organic macromolecule is formed, two smaller molecules combine by condensation, producing a larger molecule along with the loss of a molecule of water. This specific type of condensation reaction is called
isomers that contain the same atoms but in different bonding relationships
these isomers have identical bonding relationships, but the spatial positioning of the atoms differs in the two isomers
What are the two types of stereoisomers?
Cis-trans isomers and Enantiomer
Isomer that exists as a pair of molecules that are mirror images
The process by which a polymer is broken down into monomers is called
are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in or close to the proportions represented by the general formula Cn(H2O)n, where n is a whole number
Sugars are small carbohydrates that in some, but not all, cases taste sweet. The simplest sugars are the monomers known as
The most common hexose is
Once inside a cell, enzymes can break down glucose into smaller molecules, releasing energy that was stored in the chemical bonds of glucose. This energy is then stored in the bonds of another molecule, called
adenosine triphosphate, or ATP
Monosaccharides can join together by dehydration to form larger carbohydrates.
Disaccharides or sucrose (table sugar)
The bond formed between two sugar molecules is called
When many monosaccharides are linked together to form long polymers, polysaccharides (meaning many sugars) are made. What are two types of polysccharides?
Starch and Glycogen (used to store energy BTW)
What is the kind of polysaccharide in plants?
a tough, structural polysaccharide, forms the external skeleton of insects and the cell walls of fungi.
are large polysaccharides that play a structural role in animals. For example, they are abundantly found in cartilage, the tough, fibrous material found in bone and certain other animal structures.
are hydrophobic molecules composed mainly of hydrogen and carbon atoms. The defining feature of lipids is that they are nonpolar and therefore insoluble in water.
Fats are also known as?
Triglycerides and triacylglycerols
Fats are made from what two things?
Glycerol and fatty acids
is a three-carbon molecule with one hydroxyl group (OH) bonded to each carbon
is a chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms with a carboxyl group (COOH) at one end
When all the carbons in a fatty acid are linked by single covalent bonds, the fatty acid is said to be
Saturated fatty acid
some fatty acids contain one or more CwC double bonds and are known as
Unsaturated fatty acids
Animal fats are what kind of fat?
Sat fats are what at room temp and Unsat fats are what at room temp?
Solid and Liquiud
are similar in structure to triglycerides but with one important difference. third hydroxyl group of glycerol is linked to a phosphate group instead of a fatty acid
Are Amphipathic Lipids
have a distinctly different chemical structure from that of the other types of lipid molecules discussed thus far. Four fused rings of carbon atoms form the skeleton
Are Complex Lipids That Help Prevent Water Loss from Organisms
are polymers found in all cells and play critical roles in nearly all life processes
The building blocks of proteins are?
Make mRNA from a DNA template; synthesize polypeptides from mRNA; regulate genes
Proteins involved with gene expression and regulation
These Proteins intiate movement
Proteins that Protect organisms against disease
Proteins that Enable cells to communicate with each other and with the environment
Cell signaling proteins
Proteins that Support and strengthen structures
Proteins that promote movement of solutions across plasma membranes
The 20 amino acids found in proteins are distinguished by their
The amino acids are categorized as those in which the side chains are
Polar, non-pola and uncharged, or polar and charged
Amino acids are joined together by a dehydration reaction that links the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the amino group of another (Figure 3.15a). The covalent bond formed between a carboxyl and amino group is called a
When many amino acids are joined by peptide bonds, the resulting molecule is called
structure of a polypeptide is its amino acid sequence, from beginning to end. Determined by genes
Amino acids can rotate around bonds within a polypeptide. Consequently, polypeptides and proteins are flexible and can fold into a number of shapes, just as a string of beads can be twisted into many configurations. Folding can be irregular or certain regions can have a repeating folding pattern. Such repeating patterns are called
What are the two basic types of secondary structures?
Alpha helix and Beta pleated sheet
the polypeptide backbone forms a repeating helical structure that is stabilized by hydrogen bonds along the length of the backbone
regions of the polypeptide backbone come to lie parallel to each other
Beta pleated sheet
As the secondary structure of a polypeptide chain becomes established due to the particular primary structure, the polypeptide folds and refolds upon itself to assume a complex three-dimensional shape
Most functional proteins are composed of two or more polypeptides that each adopt a tertiary structure and then assemble with each other
The two classes of nucleic acids are
DNA and RNA
Like other macromolecules, both types of nucleic acids are polymers and consist of linear sequences of repeating monomers. Each monomer, known as a nucleotide, has three components:
A phosphate group. a pentose sugar, and a single or double ring of carbon
Dna is composed of
purines and pyrimidines
What are the two DNA Purines acids?
Adenine(A) and Guanine (G)
What are the two DNA Pyrimidines bases?
Cytosine (C) and THymine (T)
In RNA what is different from DNA?
Single stranded and Thymine is replaced with Uracil (U)
Amphipathic molecules Have what kind of parts?
Polar and non-polar
The Fantastic four biological macromolecules are?
Proteins, Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acids, and Lipids
Mono, Di, Tri, and Tetra?
1, 2, 3, and 4
Some examples of monosaccharides.
glucose, fructose, galactose, and ribose
some examples of disaccharide
Sucrose and maltose
An example of trisaccharide
Some examples of polysaccharides
Starch and cellulose
This is an important component of cell membranes and made in the liver
What are two very important biological molecules made from cholecterol?
Testosterone and estrogen
What are some otehr cholesterol based hormones?
Corticol, Vitamine D and Anabolic steroids
Bacterial: Contained w/in plasma membrane.
Bacterial: DNA is located here.
Bacterial: These synthesize proteins
Bacterial: Support and protection of cell
Bacterial: Traps water and gives protection
cilli and flagella
What do ribosomes produce?
What does the Rough ER produce?
Where does mitosis occur in animal cells?
What are non-membrane bound organelles?
Cytoskeleton, Cilia and flagella, centrioles, Ribosomes, and cell wall
Microtubules, Intermediate filament, and Micro filament or Actin filament
Cytoskeleton element: Gives structure, organelles attach to stay, highway for things to move, and cell division
These have a hinge, tail, and head. Use ATP for movement. Are a walking analog
What are the three kinds of movement involved with protein transport?
1) Motor proteins transport cargo along filament, 2) Motor and Filaments are restrained and protein exerts a force onto the filament and bends the filament, 3) Protein remains still and the filament moves
What doe sthe centrole do?
cell division and microtubule organzing center
This is a ridgid structure in plants and fungi for protection and filtering.
Membrane bound organelles
Nucleus, ER (smooth and rough), Golgi apparatus, Mitochondion, Chloroplasts, Vacules, and Lysosomes
This is protein and DNA
This is a small strand that is an intermediate filament that is involved with chromatin organization, anchoring pores, and anchoring complexes like smooth and rough er
A faulty lamina genes leads to these diseases
Progeria and Emery-dreifass muscle dystrophy
Are chromosomes randomly distributed within the nucleus?
Rough ER makes?
Smooth ER makes?
Lipids and detoxifying enzymes
The organelle processes and packages proteins.
The Golgi Apparatus
What are the 3 types of vacules?
Central, Contractile, and food
This vacule is within plans and is the storage of water and water soluble waste.
This vacule is in Algea and is for water regulation
This vacule is in paramecium and is for food digestion.
These are acidid, digestive enzymes, that digest food and dmaged organelles
What are the two semi-autonomous organelles?
Mitochondria and chloroplast
This semi-autonomous organelle uses ATP, has out and innter membranes, Intermediate space and matrix. Sythesis, modification, and breakdown of several types of cellular molecules. Contain their own DNA and divide by binary fussion
These Semi-autonomous organelle are involved with photosyntheis. Caputes light and uses that energy to sythesize organic molecular glucose. All plants and algea
This theory explains why there are these Semi-autonomous organelle