Bio 130.txt

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Bio 130.txt
2015-09-03 16:55:06

Exam questions
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  1. Simplest units of life
  2. Organisms use
  3. Organisms can do what with their environment?
  4. Organisms want to maintain ....
  5. Organisms grow and ...
  6. What are the 7 points that make something alive?
    1) have cells, 2) use energy, 3) interact with the environment, 4) maintain homeostasis, 5) grow and develop, 6) have genetic material, 7) population evolve
  7. A group of individuals of the same species that occupy the same environment and can interbreed with one another.
  8. An assemblage of populations of different species that live in the same place at the same time.
  9. The biotic community of organisms in an area as well as the abiotic environment affecting that community.
  10. The regions on the surface of the earth and in the atmosphere where living organisms exist.
  11. What are the two mechanisms of evolutionary change.
    Vertical descent w/ modification and horizontal gene transfer
  12. Is a progression, accumulation of mutations; natural selection
    Vertical descent w/ modification.
  13. Substance that cannot be broken down any smaller
  14. Smallest particle of an element
  15. There are 25 essential elements. What are the 4 main?
    O, N, H, C
  16. What percent does the 4 main elements make up of the 25 essential elements?
  17. Smaller amount of elements, but are critical to bodily function.
    Trace elements
  18. Life began how long ago?
    3.5-4 billion years ago
  19. These atoms have a different number of neutrons for each other.
  20. Have a charge
  21. How many electrons in the electron shells?
    First ring 2 and send 8
  22. Shared electron bonds and are non polar
    Covalent bonds
  23. Polar covalent bond
  24. Bond where and electron is given. Creates a charge.
    Ionic bonds
  25. What does formaldehyde look like
    • H
    • |
    • O=C-H
  26. All substances can be placed into 2 categories based on their interaction with water.
    Hydrophobic and hydrophillic
  27. Water loving
  28. Water hating
  29. Bonds between polar bonds. Water molecules
    Hydrogen bonds
  30. Weak bonds between non-polar molecules. Many weak bonds become stronger
    Van der waals forces
  31. Four unique properties of H2O
    • Cohesion/Adhesion
    • High energy compacity
    • Low density when frozen
    • Good solvent
  32. Concentration of H+ in a solution
  33. This mechanism of evolution involves genetic exchange, very rare, and one of the reasons for antibiotic resistance.
    Horizontal Gene Transfer
  34. Evolution can be show by diagram in two ways; what are those ways?
    Tree and Web of life.
  35. This is a diagram of vertical evolution.
    Tree of life
  36. THis is a diagram that can show vertical evolution but includes contribution of horizontal gene transfer
    Web of Life
  37. Grouping of species based on common ancestry
  38. What are the three main domains?
    Bacteria, Archea, and Eukarya
  39. Unicellular prokaryotic- Inhabit many diverse environments on earth.
  40. Unicellular prokaryotic- live in extreme environments
  41. Unicellular and multiple- have internal componenets that serve different functions. Complex nucleus.
  42. What are the four kingsdoms of Eukarya?
    Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia
  43. Molecules with predominately or entirely hydrogen-carbon bonds are called
    Hydrocarbons (Poorly soluble in water)
  44. Groups of atoms with characteristic chemical featires and properties.
    Functional groups
  45. -NH2
    Amino group
  46. -CO
  47. -COH
  48. -COOH
  49. -OH
  50. -Ch3
  51. -PO4^2-
  52. -SO4^-
  53. -SH
  54. Two structures with an identical molecular formula but different structures and characteristics are called
  55. have identical bonding relationships, but the spatial positioning of the atoms differs in the two isomers
  56. These have two hydrogen atoms linked to the two carbons of a CwC double bond may be on the same side of the carbons, in which case the C=C bond
    cis-trans isomers
  57. are molecules that catalyze, or speed up, the rates of many biologically important chemical reactions
  58. Enzymes are very specific and due to the spatial arrangements of the particular atoms in a molecule what happens with them?
    Enzymes can reconize one enantimoer of a pair and not the other.
  59. Such large molecules are formed by linking together many smaller molecules called
    Monomers and polymers
  60. the process by which two or more molecules combine into a larger one is called
    condensation reaction
  61. When an organic macromolecule is formed, two smaller molecules combine by condensation, producing a larger molecule along with the loss of a molecule of water. This specific type of condensation reaction is called
    dehydration reaction
  62. isomers that contain the same atoms but in different bonding relationships
    structural isomers
  63. these isomers have identical bonding relationships, but the spatial positioning of the atoms differs in the two isomers
  64. What are the two types of stereoisomers?
    Cis-trans isomers and Enantiomer
  65. Isomer that exists as a pair of molecules that are mirror images
  66. The process by which a polymer is broken down into monomers is called
    Hydrolysis reaction
  67. are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in or close to the proportions represented by the general formula Cn(H2O)n, where n is a whole number
  68. Sugars are small carbohydrates that in some, but not all, cases taste sweet. The simplest sugars are the monomers known as
  69. The most common hexose is
  70. Once inside a cell, enzymes can break down glucose into smaller molecules, releasing energy that was stored in the chemical bonds of glucose. This energy is then stored in the bonds of another molecule, called
    adenosine triphosphate, or ATP
  71. Monosaccharides can join together by dehydration to form larger carbohydrates.
    Disaccharides or sucrose (table sugar)
  72. The bond formed between two sugar molecules is called
    Glycosidic bond
  73. When many monosaccharides are linked together to form long polymers, polysaccharides (meaning many sugars) are made. What are two types of polysccharides?
    Starch and Glycogen (used to store energy BTW)
  74. What is the kind of polysaccharide in plants?
  75. a tough, structural polysaccharide, forms the external skeleton of insects and the cell walls of fungi.
  76. are large polysaccharides that play a structural role in animals. For example, they are abundantly found in cartilage, the tough, fibrous material found in bone and certain other animal structures.
  77. are hydrophobic molecules composed mainly of hydrogen and carbon atoms. The defining feature of lipids is that they are nonpolar and therefore insoluble in water.
  78. Fats are also known as?
    Triglycerides and triacylglycerols
  79. Fats are made from what two things?
    Glycerol and fatty acids
  80. is a three-carbon molecule with one hydroxyl group (—OH) bonded to each carbon
  81. is a chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms with a carboxyl group (—COOH) at one end
    Fatty acid
  82. When all the carbons in a fatty acid are linked by single covalent bonds, the fatty acid is said to be
    Saturated fatty acid
  83. some fatty acids contain one or more CwC double bonds and are known as
    Unsaturated fatty acids
  84. Animal fats are what kind of fat?
    Saturated fats
  85. Sat fats are what at room temp and Unsat fats are what at room temp?
    Solid and Liquiud
  86. are similar in structure to triglycerides but with one important difference. third hydroxyl group of glycerol is linked to a phosphate group instead of a fatty acid
  87. Are Amphipathic Lipids
  88. have a distinctly different chemical structure from that of the other types of lipid molecules discussed thus far. Four fused rings of carbon atoms form the skeleton
  89. Are Complex Lipids That Help Prevent Water Loss from Organisms
  90. are polymers found in all cells and play critical roles in nearly all life processes
  91. The building blocks of proteins are?
    Amino Acids
  92. Make mRNA from a DNA template; synthesize polypeptides from mRNA; regulate genes
    Proteins involved with gene expression and regulation
  93. These Proteins intiate movement
    Motor Proteins
  94. Proteins that Protect organisms against disease
    Defense proteins
  95. Proteins that Enable cells to communicate with each other and with the environment
    Cell signaling proteins
  96. Proteins that Support and strengthen structures
    Structural proteins
  97. Proteins that promote movement of solutions across plasma membranes
  98. The 20 amino acids found in proteins are distinguished by their
    Side chains
  99. The amino acids are categorized as those in which the side chains are
    Polar, non-pola and uncharged, or polar and charged
  100. Amino acids are joined together by a dehydration reaction that links the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the amino group of another (Figure 3.15a). The covalent bond formed between a carboxyl and amino group is called a
    Peptide bond
  101. When many amino acids are joined by peptide bonds, the resulting molecule is called
  102. structure of a polypeptide is its amino acid sequence, from beginning to end. Determined by genes
  103. Amino acids can rotate around bonds within a polypeptide. Consequently, polypeptides and proteins are flexible and can fold into a number of shapes, just as a string of beads can be twisted into many configurations. Folding can be irregular or certain regions can have a repeating folding pattern. Such repeating patterns are called
    Seconday structure
  104. What are the two basic types of secondary structures?
    Alpha helix and Beta pleated sheet
  105. the polypeptide backbone forms a repeating helical structure that is stabilized by hydrogen bonds along the length of the backbone
    Alpha helix
  106. regions of the polypeptide backbone come to lie parallel to each other
    Beta pleated sheet
  107. As the secondary structure of a polypeptide chain becomes established due to the particular primary structure, the polypeptide folds and refolds upon itself to assume a complex three-dimensional shape
    Tertiary structure
  108. Most functional proteins are composed of two or more polypeptides that each adopt a tertiary structure and then assemble with each other
    Quarternary structure
  109. The two classes of nucleic acids are
    DNA and RNA
  110. Like other macromolecules, both types of nucleic acids are polymers and consist of linear sequences of repeating monomers. Each monomer, known as a nucleotide, has three components:
    A phosphate group. a pentose sugar, and a single or double ring of carbon
  111. Dna is composed of
    purines and pyrimidines
  112. What are the two DNA Purines acids?
    Adenine(A) and Guanine (G)
  113. What are the two DNA Pyrimidines bases?
    Cytosine (C) and THymine (T)
  114. In RNA what is different from DNA?
    Single stranded and Thymine is replaced with Uracil (U)
  115. Amphipathic molecules Have what kind of parts?
    Polar and non-polar
  116. The Fantastic four biological macromolecules are?
    Proteins, Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acids, and Lipids
  117. Mono, Di, Tri, and Tetra?
    1, 2, 3, and 4
  118. Some examples of monosaccharides.
    glucose, fructose, galactose, and ribose
  119. some examples of disaccharide
    Sucrose and maltose
  120. An example of trisaccharide
  121. Some examples of polysaccharides
    Starch and cellulose
  122. This is an important component of cell membranes and made in the liver
  123. What are two very important biological molecules made from cholecterol?
    Testosterone and estrogen
  124. What are some otehr cholesterol based hormones?
    Corticol, Vitamine D and Anabolic steroids
  125. Organelles
    Little organs
  126. Bacterial: Contained w/in plasma membrane.
  127. Bacterial: DNA is located here.
    Nucleoid region
  128. Bacterial: These synthesize proteins
  129. Bacterial: Support and protection of cell
    Cell wall
  130. Bacterial: Traps water and gives protection
  131. Bacterial: Appendages
    cilli and flagella
  132. Before nucleus
  133. What do ribosomes produce?
  134. What does the Rough ER produce?
  135. Where does mitosis occur in animal cells?
  136. What are non-membrane bound organelles?
    Cytoskeleton, Cilia and flagella, centrioles, Ribosomes, and cell wall
  137. Cytoskeleton elements
    Microtubules, Intermediate filament, and Micro filament or Actin filament
  138. Cytoskeleton element: Gives structure, organelles attach to stay, highway for things to move, and cell division
  139. Cytoskeleton element: Gives the cell strength
    Intermediate filament
  140. Cytoskeleton element: Cell movement- endocytosis movement. Cell division
    Microfilament or actin filament
  141. These have a hinge, tail, and head. Use ATP for movement. Are a walking analog
    Motor protein
  142. What are the three kinds of movement involved with protein transport?
    1) Motor proteins transport cargo along filament, 2) Motor and Filaments are restrained and protein exerts a force onto the filament and bends the filament, 3) Protein remains still and the filament moves
  143. What doe sthe centrole do?
    cell division and microtubule organzing center
  144. This is a ridgid structure in plants and fungi for protection and filtering.
    Cell wall
  145. Membrane bound organelles
    Nucleus, ER (smooth and rough), Golgi apparatus, Mitochondion, Chloroplasts, Vacules, and Lysosomes
  146. This is protein and DNA
  147. This is a small strand that is an intermediate filament that is involved with chromatin organization, anchoring pores, and anchoring complexes like smooth and rough er
    Nuclear Lamina
  148. A faulty lamina genes leads to these diseases
    Progeria and Emery-dreifass muscle dystrophy
  149. Are chromosomes randomly distributed within the nucleus?
    No sir
  150. Rough ER makes?
  151. Smooth ER makes?
    Lipids and detoxifying enzymes
  152. Vesicles are?
    The transporters
  153. The organelle processes and packages proteins.
    The Golgi Apparatus
  154. What are the 3 types of vacules?
    Central, Contractile, and food
  155. This vacule is within plans and is the storage of water and water soluble waste.
    Central vacule
  156. This vacule is in Algea and is for water regulation
    Contractile vacule
  157. This vacule is in paramecium and is for food digestion.
    Food Vacule
  158. These are acidid, digestive enzymes, that digest food and dmaged organelles
  159. What are the two semi-autonomous organelles?
    Mitochondria and chloroplast
  160. This semi-autonomous organelle uses ATP, has out and innter membranes, Intermediate space and matrix. Sythesis, modification, and breakdown of several types of cellular molecules. Contain their own DNA and divide by binary fussion
  161. These Semi-autonomous organelle are involved with photosyntheis. Caputes light and uses that energy to sythesize organic molecular glucose. All plants and algea
  162. This theory explains why there are these Semi-autonomous organelle
    Endosymbiosos Theory