Equine- Toxicology

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  1. What part of the red maple leaf tree is toxic?
    wilted leaves
  2. How do you diagnose red maple leaf toxicity?
    acute hemolytic anemia, methemoglobinemia, heinz bodies
  3. Txt of red maple leaf toxicity.
    blood transfusion, diuresis (to prevent pigment nephropathy), dexamethasone
  4. Oleander causes __________; the most common presentation of oleander poisoning is _______.
    cardiotoxicity; sudden death
  5. How do you treat oleander if the patient survives the initial insult?
    supportive therapy, avoid Ca2+ containing fluids (due to cardiotoxicity)
  6. What part(s) of the oak tree are poisonous?
    blossoms, buds, leaves, steams, acorns
  7. Oak is ________, causing ________.
    nephrotoxic; acute tubular necrosis
  8. How do you treat oak poisoning?
  9. Why should you not give diuretic fluids to an anuric/oliguric patient?
    heart failure--> lung edema--> death
  10. Leukoencephalomalacia is caused by __________, which has a ________ discoloration.
    moldy corn; red-brown
  11. What is the toxicant in moldy corn, causing leukoencephalomalacia?
    Fumonisin B1
  12. What are the 2 syndromes associated with leukoencephalomalacia?
    classic neurotoxic syndrome (small quantities over long time), heptotoxicity (ingest large quantity acutely)
  13. How do you treat leukoencephalomalacia?
    supportive care, mannitol (if neurotoxic)
  14. Nigropallidal encephalomalacia is caused by __(2)__; must consume ______ of plant; sudden onset of...
    yellow star thistle, russian knapweed; large amount; inability of prehension, mastication, and deglutition
  15. What are 2 pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants?
    senecia, cynoglossum
  16. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids cause _________.
  17. What is the diagnostic triad for pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity?
    megalocytosis of hepatocytes, biliary hyperplasia, periportal fibrosis
  18. What should you do if you diagnose a case of pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning?
    draw blood from all herdmates and check for elevated GGT
  19. How do you treat pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity?
    remove source, supportive care
  20. What is the toxic principal of white snakeroot?
  21. What are the clinical manifestations of white snakeroot toxicity? (3)
    rhabdomyolysis, myocardial necrosis, pigmentary nephropathy
  22. How do you treat white snakeroot toxicity?
    supportive care
  23. What are the 3 toxic syndromes associated with locoweed?
    methemoglobinemia, selenium accumulation, locoism
  24. What are the clinical signs of locoweed toxicity? (4)
    ataxia, weight loss, behavior changes, visual impairment
  25. What are the manifestations of black walnut poisoning?
    laminitis, limb edema
  26. What part of the black walnut tree is poisonous?
    heartwood (wood shavings)
  27. How do you treat black walnut toxicity?
    remove source--> most recover
  28. Japanese yews cause _______ and _________.
    cardiotoxicity; sudden death
  29. Fescue is toxic because of the ________; it causes disease in horses that primarily affects the _________.
    endophytic fungus; reproductive system
  30. How do you treat fescue toxicity?
    remove mares from affected pastures, give domperidone
  31. What are sources of coumarin?
    rodenticides, some species of sweet clover, certain molds (moldy sweet clover poisoning)
  32. Moldy sweet clover poisoning causes ________ because it inhibits __________.
    hemorrhagic diathesis; production of Vit K-dependent clotting factors
  33. How do you treat mold sweet clover poisoning?
    Vit K1
  34. Why should you always give Vit K1 to horses and NOT Vit K3?
    K3 is nephrotoxic to horses
  35. What are clinical signs of vitamin D toxicity?
    weight loss, lameness, metastatic calcification
  36. What is the "slobbers"?
    profuse salivation due to slaframine toxicity (endophytic fungus of legumes)
  37. What are the signs of equine grain overload? (4)
    fever, colitis, laminitis, COLIC
  38. How do you treat equine grain overload? (5)
    MEDICAL EMERGENCY: gastric evacuation, mineral oil, activated charcoal, distal limb cryotherapy (ICE to prevent laminitis), supportive care
  39. What is usually done for horses with snake bites?
    tracheotomy- open airway- nasal passage swollen shut
  40. Ingestion of blister beetles causes... (3)
    hypocalcemia, hypomagnesmia
Card Set:
Equine- Toxicology
2015-09-04 03:05:23
vetmed equine

vetmed basic equine course
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