Card Set Information
fundamentals of microbiology
always lower case
life could arise spontaneously from non-living matter
thru mid-19th century
: maggot did not arise spontaneously from meat
: air needed first before spontaneous generation
: chicken broth in covered flasks spontaneously generated miccroorganisms
disproved spontaneous generation
: microbes are present in air and can contaminate sterile solution
1) broth in long necked flask
2) bend flask into S-shape
3) microbes not present in broth over time
: aseptic feature
Pasteur's discoveries form
: 25% drop to 2 % in mortality rate among mothers and infants
: calcium hypochlorite (bleach)
1) yeast-alcohol (beer, wine)
2) bacteria-acid (vinegar)
1) heat beer and wine just enough to kill most of bacteria causing spoilage
1935 porcelain filter
: <2 micrometers
: <2 micrometers
: chamberland filter used to ID tobacco mosaic virus, but only strong enough to retain bacteria
: small pox vaccine
1) cow pox survivors immune to small pox
Latin root for
; provides immunity
: chicken's cholera
: immune response w/o disease
1) bacterium left in heat overtime
2) inoculated healthy animals with this bacterium as well as normal cholera
3) the group inoculated with bacterium that had been left in heat over time lived, the other group died.
: "magic bullet"
: attack bacteria/virus but not host
1) culture plates infected w/ mold
2) area of inhibited growth
3) nearby penicillium, or yeast
: zone of individuation around mold
: showed that nutrients heated after being sealed in a flask did not develop microbial growth.
: criticized Needham
Humoral vs. Cellular
specific antibodies neutralize toxin
3) exposure to antigen-specific producing toxins (cow pox rendered immunity to small pox)
specific lymphocytes neutralize toxin
1) t-cells (thymus)
2) b-cells (bone marrow)
1a) phenotype is associated with pathogenic members of a genus or pathogenic strains of a species.
1b) gene in question should be found in all pathogenic strains of the genus or species but be absent from nonpathogenic strains.
2) Specific inactivation of the gene(s) associated with the suspected virulence trait should lead to a measurable loss in pathogenicity or virulence.
3) reintroduction of the gene into the microbe should restore virulence in the animal model.
4) gene, which causes virulence, must be expressed during infection.
5) Immunity must be protective.