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- first name
- scientific nomenclature
- always capitalized
- last name
- scientific nomenclature
- always lower case
- life could arise spontaneously from non-living matter
- hypothetical process
- thru mid-19th century
- Italian physician
- experiment: maggot did not arise spontaneously from meat
- flaw: air needed first before spontaneous generation
- experiment: chicken broth in covered flasks spontaneously generated miccroorganisms
- disproved spontaneous generation
- supported biogenesis
- experiment: microbes are present in air and can contaminate sterile solution
- 1) broth in long necked flask
- 2) bend flask into S-shape
- 3) microbes not present in broth over time
- exception: spores
- special feature: aseptic feature
- 2 families: Bacillus
Pasteur's discoveries form basis
- Hungarian physician
- experiment: cross-contamination
- childbirth fever: 25% drop to 2 % in mortality rate among mothers and infants
- special feature: calcium hypochlorite (bleach)
- experiment: fermentation
- 1) yeast-alcohol (beer, wine)
- 2) bacteria-acid (vinegar)
- experiment: pasteurization
- 1) heat beer and wine just enough to kill most of bacteria causing spoilage
- 1935 porcelain filter: <2 micrometers
- virus: <2 micrometers
- experiment: chamberland filter used to ID tobacco mosaic virus, but only strong enough to retain bacteria
- British physician
- experiment: small pox vaccine
- 1) cow pox survivors immune to small pox
- special feature: vacca Latin root for vaccination; provides immunity
- experiment: chicken's cholera
- attentuated: immune response w/o disease
- 1) bacterium left in heat overtime
- 2) inoculated healthy animals with this bacterium as well as normal cholera
- 3) the group inoculated with bacterium that had been left in heat over time lived, the other group died.
- German physician
- experiment: "magic bullet"
- drug: salvarsan
- treat: syphilis
- action: attack bacteria/virus but not host
- selectively toxic
- Scottish bacteriologist
- experiment: penicillin
- 1) culture plates infected w/ mold
- 2) area of inhibited growth
- 3) nearby penicillium, or yeast
- special feature: zone of individuation around mold
- Italian scientist
- experiment: showed that nutrients heated after being sealed in a flask did not develop microbial growth.
- special feature: criticized Needham
- supported Redi
Humoral vs. Cellular
- Humoral: specific antibodies neutralize toxin
- 1) antibiotics
- 2) vaccines
- 3) exposure to antigen-specific producing toxins (cow pox rendered immunity to small pox)
- Cellular: specific lymphocytes neutralize toxin
- 1) t-cells (thymus)
- 2) b-cells (bone marrow)
- 1a) phenotype is associated with pathogenic members of a genus or pathogenic strains of a species.
- 1b) gene in question should be found in all pathogenic strains of the genus or species but be absent from nonpathogenic strains.
- 2) Specific inactivation of the gene(s) associated with the suspected virulence trait should lead to a measurable loss in pathogenicity or virulence.
- 3) reintroduction of the gene into the microbe should restore virulence in the animal model.
- 4) gene, which causes virulence, must be expressed during infection.
- 5) Immunity must be protective.
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