Ch1

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Author:
BodeS
ID:
307359
Filename:
Ch1
Updated:
2015-09-15 16:50:27
Tags:
microbiology
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Description:
fundamentals of microbiology
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  1. genus
    • first name 
    • scientific nomenclature
    • always capitalized
  2. species name
    • last name
    • scientific nomenclature
    • always lower case
  3. microbes
    microorganism
  4. spontaneous generation
    • life could arise spontaneously from non-living matter
    • hypothetical process
    • thru mid-19th century
  5. Francisco Redi
    • 1668
    • Italian physician
    • experiment: maggot did not arise spontaneously from meat
    • flaw: air needed first before spontaneous generation
  6. John Needham
    • 1743
    • Englishman
    • experiment: chicken broth in covered flasks spontaneously generated miccroorganisms
  7. Louis Pasteur
    part 1
    • 1861 
    • disproved spontaneous generation
    • supported biogenesis
    • experiment: microbes are present in air and can contaminate sterile solution
    • 1) broth in long necked flask
    • 2) bend flask into S-shape
    • 3) microbes not present in broth over time
    • exception: spores
    • special feature: aseptic feature
  8. spores
    • 2 families: Bacillus
    • Clostridium
  9. aseptic procedures
    Pasteur's discoveries form basis
  10. Ignasz Sammelweis
    • 1840
    • Hungarian physician 
    • experiment: cross-contamination
    • childbirth fever: 25% drop to 2 % in mortality rate among mothers and infants
    • special feature: calcium hypochlorite (bleach)
  11. Louis Pasteur
    part 2
    • 1857
    • experiment: fermentation
    • 1) yeast-alcohol (beer, wine)
    • 2) bacteria-acid (vinegar)
  12. Louis Pasteur 
    part 3
    • 1864
    • experiment: pasteurization
    • 1) heat beer and wine just enough to kill most of bacteria causing spoilage
  13. Chamberland filter
    • 1935 porcelain filter: <2 micrometers
    • virus: <2 micrometers
    • experiment: chamberland filter used to ID tobacco mosaic virus, but only strong enough to retain bacteria
  14. electron microscope
    • 1940
    • see virus
  15. Edward Jenner
    • 1798
    • British physician
    • experiment: small pox vaccine
    • 1) cow pox survivors immune to small pox
    • special feature: vacca Latin root for vaccination; provides immunity
  16. Louis Pasteur
    part 4
    • 1880
    • experiment: chicken's cholera
    • attentuated: immune response w/o disease
    • 1) bacterium left in heat overtime
    • 2) inoculated healthy animals with this bacterium as well as normal cholera
    • 3) the group inoculated with bacterium that had been left in heat over time lived, the other group died.
  17. Paul Ehrlich
    • 1908
    • German physician
    • experiment: "magic bullet"
    • drug: salvarsan 
    • treat: syphilis
    • action: attack bacteria/virus but not host
    • selectively toxic
  18. Alexander Flemming
    • 1928
    • Scottish bacteriologist
    • experiment: penicillin 
    • 1) culture plates infected w/ mold
    • 2) area of inhibited growth
    • 3) nearby penicillium, or yeast 
    • special feature: zone of individuation around mold
  19. Lazarro Spalanzanni
    • 1765
    • Italian scientist
    • experiment: showed that nutrients heated after being sealed in a flask did not develop microbial growth.
    • special feature: criticized Needham
    • supported Redi
  20. Humoral vs. Cellular 
    immunity
    • differences:
    • Humoral: specific antibodies neutralize toxin
    • 1) antibiotics
    • 2) vaccines
    • 3) exposure to antigen-specific producing toxins (cow pox rendered immunity to small pox)
    • Cellularspecific lymphocytes neutralize toxin
    • 1) t-cells (thymus)
    • 2) b-cells (bone marrow)
  21. molecular postulates
    • 1a) phenotype is associated with pathogenic members of a genus or pathogenic strains of a species.
    • 1b) gene in question should be found in all pathogenic strains of the genus or species but be absent from nonpathogenic strains.
    • 2) Specific inactivation of the gene(s) associated with the suspected virulence trait should lead to a measurable loss in pathogenicity or virulence.
    • 3) reintroduction of the gene into the microbe should restore virulence in the animal model.
    • 4) gene, which causes virulence, must be expressed during infection.
    • 5) Immunity must be protective.

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