Bio 22

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  1. What does chemical level include (molecule/atom)
    Glucose, DNA, water
  2. What are the levels to organization?
    • Chemical (molecule/atom)
    • Cell
    • Tissue 
    • Organ 
    • System
  3. what does tissue level include? (types)
    • Epithelium
    • Connective
    • Nerve
    • Muscle
  4. What types of epithelial tissue are there?

    • Simple & Stratified 
    • Squamous, Cuboidal, Columnal

    covers surfaces; lines insides of organs and body cavities
  5. what types of connective tissue are there?
    • fibrous
    • cartilage
    • bone
    • blood
  6. what are the types of nerve tissue?
    • -general somatic efferent
    • -general visceral afferent
  7. What are the types of muscle tissue
    smooth, cardiac, skeletal
  8. what are considered organs
    • brain
    • heart
    • stomach
    • kidney
    • uterus 
    • lung
    • thymus
  9. what are the 12 systems in the body?
    cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, nervous, skeletal, integumentary, urinary, reproductive, endocrine, muscular, lymphatic, immune
  10. what are the input/output systems?
    • digestive
    • respiratory 
    • urinary
  11. what are the structural systems?
    • muscular
    • skeletal
  12. what are the communication systems.
    • nervous
    • endocrine systems
  13. what are the protection systems
    • integumentary 
    • immune
  14. what are the transportation systems
    • cardiovascular 
    • lymphatic
  15. What system stands alone?
  16. Plasma membrane
    • -defines a functional space for the cell
    • -regulates what moves in and out of the cell 
    • -provides sites for cell markers and recognition molecules
  17. Cilia
    move fluid, mucus, and materials over the cell membrane
  18. microvilli
    increases membrane surface area for more absorption/secretion
  19. flagella
    propels sperm in men
  20. Cytoplasm
    • place where metabolic processes happen in the cell
    • stores nutrients and dissolved solutes
  21. rough endoplasmic reticulum 

    rough ER
    • synthesizes proteins for secretion, new proteins for the plasma membrane, and lysosomal enzymes;
    •  also transports and stores molecules
  22. smooth endoplasmic reticulum 

    smooth er
    makes lipids, metabolizes carbohydrates, and detoxifies drugs/alcohol
  23. ribosome
    • synthesize proteins for:
    • use in the cell 
    • secretion, incorporation into plasma membrane or lysosome (fixed ribosomes)
  24. Golgi Complex/apparatus
    modifies, packages, and sorts newly synthesized proteins for secretion, inclusion to plasma membrane, or lysosomes
  25. mitochondrion (mitochondria) and cristae

    .. also known as
    • synthesize ATP during cellular respiration 
    • "cell powerhouse"
  26. lysosome
    • digest materials or microbes ingested by the cell
    • remove old/damaged organelles
    • self destruct (autolyze)
  27. centriole
    organize microtubules during cell division for movement of chromosomes
  28. microtubules
    support cell; holds organelles in place; maintains cell shape and rigidity; directs organelle movement
  29. microfilaments
    • keeps cell shape
    • aids in muscle contraction and intracellular movement
    • separates dividing cells
  30. nucleus
    contains DNA, acts as control center, site of ribosome subunit assembly
  31. nuclear membrane/envelope
    physical barrier between nucleoplasm and cytoplasm
  32. what is in nucleoplasm (karyolymph)
    contains chromatin
  33. chromatin
    site of genes in the DNA
  34. nucleolus (nuclei)
    synthesizes rRNA and assembles ribosomes in the nucleus
  35. vacuoles
    store food, nutrients, or waste (to keep cell from contamination)
  36. vesicle
    closed cellular structure in the cytoplasm surrounded by a single membrane
  37. pinocytotic vesicle
    • vesicle containing fluid that is digesting into the cell 
    • (cell drinking)
  38. phagocytic vesicle
    vesicle that is fused with a lysosome
  39. 2 principle body cavities
    Dorsal (posterior aspect) and ventral
  40. what consists of the ventral cavity (3)
    Thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity
  41. what is in the thoracic cavity?
    2 pleural and mediastinal (mediastinum) cavity
  42. what is in the abdominopelvic cavity
    abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity
  43. what is in the dorsal cavity (Posterior aspect)
    cranial and vertebral cavity
  44. what separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity?
    the diaphragm (thoracic)
  45. what lines the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities? what types are they?
    serous membranes 

    parietal and visceral serous membranes
  46. what does it mean when a membrane is parietal?
    it is inside of the body wall (away from the organ)
  47. what does it mean when a membrane is visceral?
    it means it covers the surface of the organ its protecting
  48. what membrane lines the mediastinum? 

    what can be created between these membranes? 

    What is inside this space?
    parietal and visceral pericardium 

    pericardial cavity space 

    serous fluid
  49. what membranes are the pleural cavities lined by? 

    what is created between these membranes? 

    whats in them?
    parietal and visceral pleura 

    makes a pleural cavity 

    serous fluid
  50. what membranes are the abdominopelvic cavities lined by? 

    what is created between these membranes? 

    whats in them?
    parietal and visceral peritoneum 

    peritoneal cavity 

    serous fluid
  51. what is chromatin? 

    heterochromatin vs euchromatin
    found in nucleoplasm consisting of RNA, DNA, and protein

    heterochromatin-tightly condensed form of DNA (tightly packed)

    euchromatin- loose, non condensed form of dna
  52. Anterior/ventral
    towards the front of the body or surface, in front of
  53. posterior/dorsal
    toward the back of the body, behind
  54. superior 
    towards the head end or upper part of the body's structure, above
  55. inferior 
    away from the head end or toward the lower part of the body structure, below
  56. medial
    towards the midline of the inner side
  57. intermediate
    between, more medial
  58. proximal
    close to the origin of the body part or point of attachment
  59. distal
    part farther away from the origin of of the body, away from the point of attachment
  60. superficial
    toward or at the body surface
  61. deep
    away from the body surface, more internal
  62. coronal/frontal
    vertical plane that separates the anterior from the posterior

    • chest is in front 
    • back is in back
  63. transverse/cross sectional plane
    separates the body into superior and inferior
  64. midsagittal plane (median)
    divides the body or organ in right and left halves
  65. sagittal plane
    a plane that is parallel to the midsagittal plane but either to the left or right of it
  66. what are the cells in connective tissue
    fibroblasts, mast cells, macrophages, adipocytes, plasma cells, chondrocytes, chondroblasts
  67. types of fibers in connective tissue
    collagen fibers, elastic, reticular fibers
Card Set:
Bio 22
2015-09-08 05:03:54
Human Anatomy

intro quiz
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