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An involuntary contraction of a voluntary muscle.
A spasm or cramp
Which one is strong, painful, usually short-lived spasms?
An involuntary twitching contraction of fasciculi
Typically a painless momentary contraction of a small number of superficial muscle fibers.
Most common situations for spasms/cramps
- Exercise-associated muscle cramping
- Underlying conditions
What are the important nutrition for cramps.
Calcium, potassium, magnesium, glucose, sodium and water.
How ischemia happen?
When a muscle or part of a muscle is suddenly or gradually deprived of oxygen, it can't function properly. Sometimes it is a sudden and violent reaction to oxygen shortage.
What is a reflexive reaction against injury?
What are the examples of underlying conditions for cramps/spasms?
diabetes, anemia, kidney disorders
Injuries to muscle fibers involving the tearing of myofibers and production of scar tissue.
Often develop in the context of chronic, cumulative overuse patterns with no specific onset.
An abnormal connection between one layer of tissue and another. Usually refers to the "gluing" of connective tissue layers.
2 potential implications for strains.
This symptoms are mild or intense local pain, stiffness, and pain on resisted movement or passive stretching
What is PRICES?
- P: protocol
- R: rest
- I: ice
- C: compression
- E: elevation
- S: support
"porous bones" In this condition, calcium is pulled off the bones faster than it is replace, leaving them thin brittle, and prone to injury.
The condition of low bone density, but not low enough to be considered osteoporosis
People normally accumulate most of their bone density by about age ______, but small gains are made until around age ______ to ______.
20, 30, 35
Which gender risk more for osteoporosis?
Osteoporosis can be the consequence of some other medical
diabetes, anorexia, bulimia, hyper and hypothyroidism, Rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
What is the overdeveloped spinal curve?
What is overdeveloped thoracic curve?
Which type of hyperkyphosis that mostly affects young men.
What is overdeveloped lumbar curve?
The connective tissues that surround the glenohumeral joint become first inflamed and then thickened and restrictive.
What is the another term for Adhesive Capsulitis?
Which Adhesive Capsulitis phase is "experiences pain in one shoulder, especially at night, the pain is severe and slowly progressive, gradually loses its range of motion up to 85%"
Which Adhesive Capsulitis phase is "progression stabilized, for several months shoulder is extremely stiff but no longer acutely painful."?
Which Adhesive Capsulitis phase is "pain is relieved, full or nearly full range of the motion is restored."?
How long does the Adhesive Capsulitis whole cycle from beginning to end can take?
9 months to 3 years
An abnormally high concentration of uric acid in the blood.
Your client has excruciating pain at the base of the great toe. The skin is red, shiny, hot, and throbbing. What condition is probably present?
C. Hammer toe
D. Morton neuroma
A condition in which synovial joints especially weigh-bearing joints, lose healthy cartilage.
Which is the best description of osteoarthritis?
A. A type of joint inflammation related to the accumulation of sharp crystals around synovial joints.
B. A type of join inflammation related to autoimmune dysfunction
C. A type of joint inflammation that is limited specifically to synovial joints
D. A type of join inflammation that can spread through the bloodstream to other joints.
What is a variety o arthritis brought about by the accumulation of uric acid crystals in and around joint capsules, especially in the feet.
What is caused by calcium pyrophosphate crystals?
What is a common feature of spondylosis that distinguishes it from other types of arthritis?
A. Bone spurs that can impnge of spinal nerve roots
B. An inflamed capsular ligament at risk for rupture
C. A close association with rheumatoid arthritis
D. Absence of damage to the articular cartilage
What is a form of degenerative arthritis, involving age-related changes of the vertebrae, discs, joints and ligaments o the spine?
What are tears to ligaments?
Which degree sprains are ruptures; the entire structure has been ripped through?
Treatment for sprains
PRICE (protection, rest, ice, compression, elevation) for only a day or two, and then instituting the POLICE (Protection, optimal loading, ice, compression, elevation) protocol.
This collection of signs and symptoms is usually associated with malocclusion (a dysfunctional bite), bruxism (teeth grinding), and loose ligaments surrounding the jaw
Temporomandibular Joint Disorder
What are common symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder?
A. Swollen tongue, inflamed lymph nodes, lockjaw
B. Headaches, shooting pain down the arn, limited range of motion
C. Locking of the joint, hypotonicity of the jow muscles, weakness
D. Bruxism, popping, ear pain
Plantar Fasciitisis not an _______________ condition. Rather, it is the result of degeneration of the ___________________.
inflammatory, collagen matrix
A set of signs and symptoms brought about by entrapment of the median nerve between the carpal bones of the wrist and the transverse carpal ligament that holds down the flexor tendons.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Tendons are made mostly of ___________ fibers.
type I collagen
A new injury that leads to the classic signs of inflammation: pain, heat, redness, and swelling
Long-term degeneration, microscopy shows more liquid ground substance in than in a healthy tendon and the collagen fibers are disrupted and discontinuous.
Irritation develops where tendons slide through their synovial sheaths. It happens most often at the wrist and flexor aspect of the fingers.
A progressive degenerate disorder of the brain causing memory loss, personality changes, and eventually death.
______ % of people over 65 have Alzheimer Disease.
_______ % of those over 85 have been diagnosed Alzheimer Disease.
A progressive and fatal condition that destroys motor neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis