Medical Terminology Chapter 2

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Becho
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307417
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Medical Terminology Chapter 2
Updated:
2015-09-06 03:06:25
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ivy tech medical terminology
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medical terminology
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chapter 2, week 3
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  1. aden/o
    gland
  2. adip/o
    fat
  3. anter/o
    before,front
  4. caud/o
    lower part of body, tail
  5. cephal/o
    head
  6. cyt/o, -cyte
    cell
  7. end-, endo-
    in, within, inside
  8. exo-
    out of, outside, away from
  9. hist/o, histi/o
    tissue
  10. -ologist
    specialist
  11. -ology
    the science or study of
  12. path/o, -pathy
    disease, suffering, feeling, emotion
  13. plas/i, plas/o, -plasia
    development, growth, formation
  14. poster/o
    behind, towards the back
  15. -stasis, -static
    control, maintenance of a constant level
  16. abdominal cavity
    The body cavity that contains primarily the major organs of digestion.
  17. adenectomy
    The surgical removal of a gland.
  18. adenocarcinoma
    A malignant tumor that originates in glandular tissue.
  19. adenoma
    A benign tumor that arises in or resembles glandular tissue.
  20. adenomalacia
    Abnormal softening of a gland.
  21. adenosclerosis
    Abnormal hardening of a gland or glands.
  22. anaplasia
    A change in the structure of cells and in their orientation to each other.
  23. anatomy
    The study of the structures of the body.
  24. anomaly
    A deviation from what is regarded as normal.
  25. anterior
    Situated in front.
  26. aplasia
    The defective development or congenital absence of an organ or tissue.
  27. bloodborne transmission
    The spread of a disease through contact with blood or other body fluids contaminated with blood.
  28. caudal
    Toward the lower part of the body.
  29. cephalic
    Toward the head.
  30. chromosomes
    The genetic structures located within the nucleus of each cell.
  31. communicable disease
    Any disease transmitted from one person to another either by direct or indirect contact with contaminated objects.
  32. congenital disorder
    An abnormal condition that exists at the time of birth.
  33. cytoplasm
    The material located within the cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus.
  34. distal
    Situated farthest from the midline or beginning of a body structure.
  35. dorsal
    Back of the body or organ.
  36. dysplasia
    Abnormal development or growth of cells, tissues, or organs.
  37. endemic
    Referring to the ongoing presence of a disease, such as the common cold, within a population, group, or area.
  38. endocrine glands
    Glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream.
  39. epidemic
    A sudden and widespread outbreak of a disease within a specific population group or area.
  40. epigastric region
    The region located above the stomach.
  41. etiology
    The study of the causes of diseases.
  42. exocrine glands
    Glands that secrete chemical substances into ducts leading either to other organs or out of the body.
  43. functional disorder
    Produces symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified.
  44. genetic disorder
    A pathological condition caused by an absent or defective gene.
  45. geriatrician
    A physician who specializes in the care of older people.
  46. hemophilia
    A group of hereditary bleeding disorders in which one of the factors needed to clot the blood is missing; transmitted from mother to son.
  47. histology
    The study of the structure, composition, and function of tissues.
  48. homeostasis
    The processes through which the body maintains a constant internal environment.
  49. hyperplasia
    The enlargement of an organ or tissue because of an abnormal increase in the number of cells in the tissues.
  50. hypertrophy
    A general increase in the bulk of a body part or organ that is due to an increase in the size, but not in the number, of the cells in the tissues.
  51. hypogastric region
    The region of the abdomen that is located below the stomach.
  52. hypoplasia
    The incomplete development of an organ or tissue usually due to a deficiency in the number of cells.
  53. iatrogenic illness
    Side effect or unfavorable response arising from a prescribed treatment or medication.
  54. idiopathic disorder
    An illness without known cause.
  55. infectious disease
    Illness caused by a living pathogenic organism, such as a bacterium, virus, or fungus.
  56. inguinal
    Relating to the groin; refers to the entire lower portion of the abdomen including the groin.
  57. medial
    The direction toward or nearer the midline.
  58. mesentery
    The fused double layer of the parietal peritoneum that attaches parts of the intestine to the interior abdominal wall.
  59. midsagittal plane
    The vertical plane that divides the body, from top to bottom, into equal left and right halves.
  60. nosocomial infection
    Infection acquired in a hospital or clinic.
  61. pandemic
    A disease outbreak occurring over a large geographic area, possibly worldwide.
  62. pelvic cavity
    The space formed by the hip bones that contains primarily the organs of the reproductive and excretory systems.
  63. peritoneum
    The multilayered membrane that protects and supports (suspends in place) the organs located in the abdominal cavity.
  64. peritonitis
    Inflammation of the peritoneum.
  65. phenylketonuria
    A genetic disorder in which the essential digestive enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase is missing.
  66. physiology
    The study of the functions of the body structures.
  67. posterior
    Situated in back or on the back part of an organ.
  68. proximal
    Situated nearest the midline or beginning of a body structure.
  69. retroperitoneal
    Located behind the peritoneum of the abdominal cavity.
  70. stem cells
    Unspecialized cells that renew themselves for long periods of time through cell division.
  71. thoracic cavity
    The cavity that surrounds and protects the heart and the lungs; also known as the chest.
  72. transverse plane
    The horizontal plane that divides the body into upper and lower portions; runs across the body.
  73. umbilicus
    The pit in the center of the abdominal wall that marks where the umbilical cord was attached before birth.
  74. vector-borne transmission
    The spread of a disease due to the bite of a vector capable of transmitting that disease.
  75. ventral
    Refers to the front or belly side of the body or organ.
  76. atresia
    The congenital absence of a normal opening or the failure of a structure to be tubular.
  77. prenatal influences
    the mother's health, behavior, and the prenatal medical care she does or does not receive before delivery.
  78. fetal alcohol syndrome
    • condition
    • characterized by growth abnormalities, mental retardation, brain
    • damage, and socialization difficulties, caused by the mother's
    • consumption of alcohol during pregnancy.
  79. huntington's disease
    a genetic disorder that causes nerve degeneration with symptoms that most often appear in midlife.

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