Ch2

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Author:
BodeS
ID:
307443
Filename:
Ch2
Updated:
2015-09-17 18:01:26
Tags:
microbiology
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Description:
chemistry
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  1. proton
    H+
  2. hydrogen bond
    • O2/N2 is attracted to H2O/N2O
    • delta negative of H2O/N2O covalently bonds to the delta positive of O2/N2
  3. CH4
    • covalent bond
    • hydrogen bond
  4. H2
    covalent bond
  5. covalent bond
    • 2 atoms sharing pairs of electrons
    • single: one pair of shared electrons
    • double: two pair
    • triple: three pair
  6. ionic bond
    • attraction between ions
    • of opposite charge
    • that holds them together
    • to form a stable molecule
  7. NaCl
    ionic bond
  8. polar molecule
    • delta negative region (ex: oxygen region)
    • delta positive region (ex: hydrogen region)
  9. solvent
    dissolving medium causing dissociation, or ionization
  10. solute
    • dissolving substance
    • held together by ionic bonds
  11. polymers
    formed by covalent bonding of many repeating small molecules called monomers
  12. carbon skeleton
    • carbon branching chain
    • a huge number of combination is possible
    • hydrogen bonds always present
    • common atoms form characteristic functional groups
  13. functional group
    • the bonding of other elements with carbon and hydrogen forming specific groups of atoms that are most commonly involved in properties of such compounds
    • ex: NH2 
    • COOH
    • PO4 
    • CH3
    • OH
    • SH
  14. properties of carbon
    • 1) polymers
    • 2) branching chain (skeleton)
    • 3) functional group
    • 4) double, triple bonds
  15. macromolecules
    • carbohydrates
    • protein
    • lipids
    • nucleic acids
  16. metabolic pathways
    • reversible anabolic and catabolic reactions
    • ex: fructose + glucose <---> sucrose + H2O
  17. condensation
    • anabolic pathways
    • dehydration
    • ex: fructose + glucose ----> sucrose + H2O
  18. L vs D
    amino acids
    • bacteria: L and D
    • human: only L
  19. hydolysis
    • catabolic pathways
    • ex: sucrose + H2O ----> glucose + fructose
  20. dehydration
    produce H2O from OH reactants
  21. Carbohydrates
    monomer
    polymer
    • monomer: monosaccharide
    • ex: glucose
    • polymer: disaccharide
    • ex: sucrose
    • polysaccharide
    • ex: glycogen
  22. biosynthetic pathways
    anabolic
  23. glycosidic bond
    ID
    fxn
    reaction
    ex
    • ID: hydrolyzed bond 
    • fxn: bond between two monomers
    • reaction: condensation/dehydration
    • ex: glucose (OH) and fructose (OH)
  24. polysaccharide
    • polymer of glucose 
    • 1) nutrient storage
    • ex: glycogen
    • starch
    • 2) structural
    • ex: cellulose
  25. Protein 
    monomer
    polymer
    • monomer: amino acids
    • polymer: peptide
  26. amino acid
    • carboxyl group (COOH)
    • amino group (NH2)
  27. peptide bond
    ID
    fxn
    reaction
    • ID: nitrogen bond
    • fxn: bond two monomeric amino acids
    • reaction: condensation/dehydration
  28. protein bonds
    structure
    shape
    • structure: peptide bonds
    • shape: H+ bonds
    • covalent bonds
  29. levels of protein structure
    • primary
    • secondary
    • tertiary
    • quaternary
  30. primary structure
    • unique sequence of amino acids
    • that form polypeptide chain
  31. primary structure
    reaction
    • dehydration synthesis
    • condensation
  32. secondary structure
    • amino acids
    • close to each other
    • along the protein chain
    • interact
  33. secondary structure 
    bonds
    shapes
    • bond: H+ 
    • shape: helix
    • pleated sheet
  34. helix vs. pleated sheet
    • pl. helices
    • coil
    • vs. 
    • flat

  35. tertiary structure
    • amino acid
    • far from each other
    • along the protein chain
    • interact
  36. tertiary structure
    bonds 
    key amino acid
    • bond: covalent 
    • ex: disulfide bridges
    • key amino acid: cysteine (-SH)
  37. quaternary stucture
    unit
    subunit

    • unit: aggregation of polypeptide chains that operate as a single functional unit
    • subunit: 2+ polypeptide chain
  38. nucleic acids
    monomer
    polymer
    • monomer: nucleotide
    • polymer: RNA, DNA
  39. nucleic acids
    2 types
    • ribonucleic acid (RNA)
    • deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
  40. nucleotide
    3 parts
    bonds
    • 1) nitrogenous base
    • 2) pentose 5-carbon sugar
    • 3) phosphate group (-PO4)
    • bond: H+ 
    • covalent
  41. nitrogenous base
    2 types
    bonds
    fxn
    • 1) purines
    • 2) pyrimidines
    • bond: H+
    • fxn: structure
  42. purines
    • Adenine
    • Guamine
  43. pyrimidines
    • Cytosine
    • Thyamine (RNA)
    • Uracil (RNA)
  44. Nucleotide
    pentose sugar + phosphate PO4
    bonds
    fxn
    special feature
    • bond: covalent 
    • fxn: backbone
    • special feature: 51-31 direction
  45. 51-31 direction
    parallel strands
    antiparallel strands
    • parallel: double-stranded helix always same distance apart
    • antiparallel: 51-31 direction does in reverse with strands within the helix
  46. polymerization of nucleotides
    ID
    reaction
    example
    • ID: phospodeister bond
    • reaction: hydrolysis
    • ex: DNA
  47. lipids
    structure
    types
    fxn
    • structure: glycerol 
    • fatty acids
    • types: triglycerides
    • phospholipids
    • fxn: form plasm membrane
  48. glycerol
    • alcohol
    • fxn: backbone of fatty acids
  49. phospholipids
    • diglyceride + organic phosphate group 
    • fxn: bilayered membrane
  50. condensation/dehydration of a fat
    ID
    bond
    • ID: triglyceride 
    • bond: esther linkage
  51. monomers vs. polymers
    condensation/dehydration 
    • 1) lipids do not form polymers
    • 2) anabolic: biosynthetic pathway
    • 3) OH- [hydroxyl]: functional group
  52. monomers vs polymers
    hydrolysis
    • 1) nucleic acids only
    • 2) catabolic: pathway
    • 3) OH- [hydroxyl]: functional group
  53. 2 functional units of all amino acids
    • 1) carboxyl group (COOH)
    • 2) amino group (NH2)
  54. RNA vs DNA
    • RNA
    • structure: single stranded
    • sugar: ribose
    • nitrogenous base: AUGC
    • fxn: protein synthesis

    • DNA
    • structure: double stranded
    • sugar: pentose
    • nitrogenous base: ATC G
    • fxn: determine hereditary traits
  55. informational molecules
    • ID: genetic information
    • fxn: DNA determines protein synthesis
    • structure: nucleic acids & protein

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