MRI Brain Imaging

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  1. How many lobes of the brain are there? List them.
    4...Frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
  2. What does the Sylvian fissure divide?
    The frontal and parietal lobes from the temporal lobe
  3. What artery passes through the Sylvian Fissure?
    Middle cerebral artery
  4. Where should the landmark be for routine brain imaging?
  5. What sequence demonstrates a hemorrhagic infarct better in the brain
    Gradient echo sequence
  6. Where is the insular cortex found?
    Folded deep within the lateral sulcus between the temporal and frontal lobe
  7. What is the insular cortex a portion of?
    the cerebral cortex
  8. What function do the insulae perform?
    • Diverse functions linked to emotion or regulation of bodys homeostasis.
    • Perception, motor control, self awareness, cognitive function, interpersonal experience
  9. How many cranial nerves are there?
  10. Olfactory Nerve number?
    CN I
  11. Olfactory nerve location?
    Cribiform plate ethmoid bone
  12. Olfactory nerve function
    smell from nasal mucosa
  13. Optic nerve number
    CN II
  14. Optic nerve location
    Retina/optic canal
  15. Optic nerve function
    Vision from retina
  16. Oculomotor nerve number
    CN III
  17. Oculomotor nerve location
    Midbrain to orbital fissure
  18. Oculomotor nerve function
    Motor function to superior, inferior and medial rectus muscles
  19. Trochlear nerve number
    CN IV
  20. Trochlear nerve location
    Posterior midbrain to orbital fissure
  21. Trochlear nerve function
    Motor function to superior oblique that directs gaze Inf-lat
  22. Trigeminal nerve number
    CN V
  23. Trigeminal nerve location
    Pons to foramen ovale/rotundum
  24. Trigeminal nerve function
    Facial sensation, forehead/scalp to mouth/lip/anterior tongue
  25. Abducens nerve number
    CN VI
  26. Abducens nerve location
    Pons to superior orbital fissure
  27. Abducens nerve function
    Motor to lateral rectus that controls lateral gaze
  28. Facial Nerve number
    CN VII
  29. Facial nerve location
    Pons to submandibular ganglion, IAC/Facial canal
  30. Facial nerve function
    Motor to muscles controlling facial expression, stapedius of middle ear, taste to anterior tongue
  31. Vestibulocochlear nerve number
  32. Vestibulocochlear nerve location
    Vestibular ganglion to IAC
  33. Vestibulocochlear nerve function
    vestibular sensation from semicircular ducts, hearing from spiral organ
  34. Glossopharyngeal nerve number
    CN IX
  35. Glossopharyngeal nerve location
    Medulla/superior and inferior ganglion to Jugular foramen
  36. Glossopharyngeal nerve function
    Swallowing motor, parotid gland parasympathetic, taste from posterior tongue, cutaneous sensation from external ear.
  37. Vagus Nerve number
    CN X
  38. Vagus nerve location
    Medulla/inferior ganglion to jugular foramen
  39. Vagus nerve function
    Motor to pharynx, larynx, palate muscles, taste from epiglottis. Para sympathetic innervation to trachea, bronchi, digestive tract, coronaries
  40. Spinal accessory nerve number
    CN XI
  41. Spinal accessory nerve location
    Spinal cord
  42. Spinal accessory nerve function
    Motor to trapezius and sternocleidomastoid
  43. Hypoglassal nerve number
    CN XII
  44. Hypoglossal nerve location
    Medulla to hypoglossal canal
  45. Hypoglossal nerve function
    Motor to intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of tongue
  46. When is DWI used in brain imaging?
    When a CVA is suspected
  47. What are common problems with DWI?
    • Sensitivity to magnetic susceptibility when using echo planar readout
    • Bulk patient motion
    • Low SNR
  48. Where is the hippocampus located?
    Medial temporal lobe
  49. What imaging plane best shows the hippocampus?
    coronal oblique
  50. What is contained within the aqueduct of Sylvius?
  51. What does the aqueduct of Sylvius connect?
    3rd and 4th ventricle
  52. What structure is adjacent to the anterior horn of lateral ventricle?
    head of the caudate nucleus
  53. What is an acoustic neuroma aka?
    vestibular schwannoma
  54. What nerve does an acoustic neuroma affect?
    vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII)
  55. What should the protocol include for an acoustic neuroma?
    thin cuts through the IACS or 7th and 8th cranial nerves
  56. Where should the centering be for an IAC exam?
    External Auditory Meatus
  57. What is a Chiari Malformation?
    Downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum
  58. Which imaging plane best visualizes a Chiari malformation?
  59. In a CSF flow study (CINE), the bright white signal in CSF space indicates what?
    Flow during systole
  60. In CINE of CSF the black signal void indicates
    Flow during diastole
  61. What protocols are useful in diagnosing micro adenomas and pituitary tumors?
    • Thin slice sagittals and coronals
    • Dynamic Contrast enhanced thin coronals
  62. Why is it important to scan rapidly following contrast injection when scanning for a pituitary tumor?
    Because tumors appear as low signal intensity compared to the enhanced pituitary gland
  63. What is the pituitary stalk called?
  64. What sits within the sella turcica?
    the pituitary gland
  65. Which direction can a pituitary tumor extend? What is a result?
    • Only upward in the superior direction
    • compression of the optic chiasm
  66. What sequence is useful in determining amount of CSF superior to pituitary gland?
    Small FOV T2 weighted coronal
  67. What sequences are used for attention to optic nerves?
    • thin cuts through orbits
    • 3mm axial/coronal including FATSat pre and post contrast
  68. What causes Bells palsy?
    dysfunction of the cranial  nerve VII (facial nerve)
  69. What does multiple sclerosis refer to?
    scars or lesions in the white matter of the brain and spinal cord
  70. What should the approach be to scanning MS patients?
    • Thin slice FLAIR high resolution Axial and Sagittal sequences 
    • Delaying post contrast T1 weighted images to allow accurate contrast visualization
  71. What is utilized to suppress signal from CSF?
    FLAIR sequence with long T1
  72. Where do the vertebral arteries branch from?
    the subclavian arteries
  73. What do the vertebral arteries merge to form?
    the single midline basilar artery
  74. Where do the vertebral arteries join together?
    at the base of the medulla oblongata
  75. What is received by the dural venous sinuses
    • blood from internal and external veins of the brain
    • receive CSF from subarachnoid space
  76. Where do the dural venous sinuses empty?
    the internal jugular vein
  77. Where is the superior sagittal sinus located?
    Runs the length of the falx cerebra
  78. What drains into the superior sagittal sinus
    blood from lateral aspects of the anterior cerebral hemispheres
  79. Where does the superior sagittal sinus drain into?
    confluence of sinuses
  80. What are drained by the transverse sinuses?
    from the back of the head
  81. What sinus drains into the transverse sinus
    Confluence of sinuses
  82. where does the transeverse sinus drain into?
    The sigmoid sinus into the internal jugular vein
  83. Where does the articular disc lie in the TMJs
    mandibular condyle and mandibular fossa
  84. What will allow more arterial vessels to visualized in an MRA head and neck
    Increasing the Velocity encodings (VENC)
  85. An intracranial MRA exam is defined as an ____
    MRA Circle of Willis or head MRA
  86. An extracranial MRA exam is defined as an MRA of _____
    Carotid and vertebral arteries
  87. What supplies blood to anterior brain
    internal carotid artery
  88. What supplies blood to the face
    External carotid artery
  89. What supplies blood to posterior brain
    vertebral artery
  90. How is the removal of signal from vessels accomplished in a non contrast MRA sequence
    By spatial presaturation
  91. Where would a presaturation pulse be applied to acquire arterial blood flow MRA?
    • superior to the slice group
    • nulls signal from intracranial venous blood flow
  92. Where would a prostration pulse be applied to acquire MR venogram
    • inferior to the slice group
    • nulls signal from arterial blood flow
  93. What is used to best visualize the Circle of Willis
    3D time of flight
  94. At what level is the common carotid artery bifurcation
    c3-4 disc space
Card Set:
MRI Brain Imaging
2015-09-11 00:39:56
MRI brain head neck
MRI Brain imaging, head and neck imaging
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