chapter 15 definitions

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  1. Alopecia
    Hair loss
  2. Anaplasia
    Pattern of growth in which cells lack normal characteristics and differ in shape and organization with respect to their cells of origin; usually, anaplastic cells are malignant
  3. Angiogenesis
    Growth of new blood vessels that allow cancer cells to grow
  4. Apoptosis
    Programmed cell death
  5. Benign
    Not cancerous; benign tumors may grow but are unable to spread to other organs or body parts
  6. Biologic Response Modifier Therapy
    The use of agents or treatment methods that can alter the immunologic relationship between the tumor and the host to provide a therapeutic benefit
  7. Biopsy
    A diagnostic procedure in which a small sample of tissue is removed and examine microscopically to detect malignant cells
  8. Brachytherapy
    Delivery of radiation therapy through internal implants
  9. Cancer
    A disease process whereby cells proliferate abnormally, ignoring growth-regulating signals in the environment surrounding the cells
  10. Carcinogenesis
    Process of transforming normal cells into malignant cells
  11. Carcinogens
    Chemicals, physical factors, and other agents that cause cancer
  12. Chemotherapy
    The use of medications to kill tumor cells by interfering with cellular functions and reproduction
  13. Control
    Containment of the growth of cancer cells
  14. Cure
    Prolonged survival and disappearance of all evidence of disease so that the patient has the same life expectancy as anyone else in his or her age group
  15. Cytokines
    Substances produced primarily by cells of the immune system to enhance production and function of components of the immune system
  16. Extravasation
    Leakage of medication from the veins into the subcutaneous tissue
  17. Grading
    Identification of the type of tissue from which the tumor originated and the degree to which the tumor cells retain the functional and structural characteristics of the tissue of origin
  18. Graft-versus-tumor effect
    The donor cell response against the malignancy; a desirable response
  19. Malignant
    Having cells or processes that are characteristics of cancer
  20. Metastasis
    Spread of cancer cells from the primary tumor to distant sites
  21. Mucositis
    Inflammation of the lining of the gastrointestinal tract often associated with cancer therapies
  22. Myelosuppression
    Suppression of the blood-cell producing function of the bone marrow
  23. Nadir
    Lowest point of white blood cell depression after therapy that has toxic effects on the bone marrow
  24. Neoplasia
    Uncontrolled cell growth that follows no physiologic demand
  25. Neutropenia
    Abnormally low absolute neutrophil count
  26. Oncology
    Field or study of cancer
  27. Palliation
    Relief of symptoms and promotion of comfort and quality of life
  28. Radiation Therapy
    The use of ionizing radiation to kill malignant cells
  29. Staging
    Process of determining the extent of disease, including tumor size and spread or metastasis to distant sites
  30. Stomatitis
    Inflammation of the oral tissues, often associated with some chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapy to the head and neck region
  31. Targeted Therapies
    Cancer treatments that seek to minimize the negative effects on health tissues by disrupting specific cancer cell functions, such as malignant transformation, communication pathways, processes fro growth and metastasis, and genetic coding
  32. Thrombocytopenia
    Decrease in the number of circulating platelets; associated with the potential for bleeding
  33. Tumor-specific Antigen
    Protein on the membrane of cancer cells that distinguishes the malignant cell from a benign cell of the same tissue type
  34. Vesicant
    Substance that can cause tissue necrosis and damage
  35. Xerostomia
    Dry oral cavity resulting from decreased function of salivary glands
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chapter 15 definitions
2015-09-07 20:54:33
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