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Ancient Greece: Origins
- Greek Tribes entered the "hellas" (Greek Mainland)
- Exports of pottery, metalwork, etc.
- Olympic games
Archaic Greece: Developments
- Polis (Greek city-state), Colonization, military
- Great Seafarers
- Greek infantrymen and foot soldiers (usually farmers)
- pike, sword and shield (named after shield)
hoplites line up shoulder to shoulder 8 rows deeps and charged the enemy an raised spears
- Largest Greek Polis
- Strong military, Wealthy, interested in conquest and expansion, mixed gov't
- Made "Helots" (slaves) out of neighboring Messenia
The Persian Wars (499-479 BC)
- Greek cities were under Persian rule and they decided to revolt
- Persians revenged
BATTLE OF MARATHON
- Persians vastly outnumbered the Athenians, yet the Athenians were the victors
- Phalanx likely result
- Greek messenger – so the story goes – ran twenty-four miles from Marathon to Athens
BATTLE OF THERMOPYLAE (480 BC)
- launched by Persian King Xerxes
- King Leonidas sent the 300 to defend hidden road
- Persians won
Battle of Salamis (480 BC)
- Greek ships called Triremas
- End of Persian wars at sea. Greeks won.
“Classical” Greece (480-322 BC)
- “classical” means “to set a
- standard.” very influential
- Athens is main city
- derives from the Greek demokratia, meaning “rule of the people.”
- “ordinary people” could set an agenda and vote!
- Assembly and the Judiciary
- Similar to America
- General and Politician
- “Our constitution does not copy the laws of neighboring states; we are
- rather a pattern to others than imitators ourselves. Its administration favors the many
- instead of the few; this is why it is called a democracy…”
Women in Athens
- not recognized as citizens
- role in religion and watch of slaves
The Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC)
- Athens major naval power of Greece
- Sparta unhappy with Athens for interfering with their matters
- Sparta won in 404 BC (received Persian support)
- Athens gov't lost for some time
HOMER (ca 725)
- Iliad (Trojan war, Achilles and Hector) and the Odyssey (Odysseus's voyage)
- possibly blind
- Oral storyteller
Sappho (ca 625)
- From Lesbos - "Lesbian" stories
- female poet
- two types of plays: Tragedy and Comedy
Sophokles (ca. 495-406 BC)
tragedy/comedy? play Oedipus Rex
- the art of speaking and argumentation.
- used by politicians in speeches
HERODOTUS (ca. 485-425 BC).
- "Father of History"
- wrote "The Histories"
- nude "ideal" proportionate male sculpture
- name means “spear-bearer”
- Doric, Ionic, Corinthian column styles
- reconstruction of Akropolis
- Parthenon - "idealized temple"
- "Porch of the Maidens"
Philosophy means "love of wisdom"
SOKRATES (470-399 BC)
- “Socratic Method.” asking questions that lead in a particular direction
- Not popular with Athen's gov't
- Tried and executed
PLATO (427-348 BC)
- disciple of Sokrates
- “Theory of Forms,” an ideal form for all things
- “deceptive appearance” vs. the “intellectual realm of ideas,”
- wrote The Republic (ca. 360 BC).
ARISTOTLE (384-322 BC).
- wrote Politics (ca. 350 BC).
- women "defective"
taught that in order to be happy one must remove the trappings of civilization
- apatheia "apathy" - emphasized that if one wanted to achieve peace and happiness that one would
- have to submit to the laws of nature.
- for the naturalness of animals.
- believed that the gods really were not concerned about human affairs; so
- for them the most logical thing to do was to find happiness here on earth.
- Had you asked them if there was some kind of
- absolute truth out there, they would have laughed at you and said, “Forget it! Don’t even
- bother trying to figure that out.”
Called "barbarians" (means that they didn't speak greek or latin)
- PHILIP OF MACEDON (382-336 BC)
- father of Alexander the Great
- greatly expanded the Macedonian Empire
Alexander the Great (r. 336-323 BC)
- taught by Aristotle
- invaded and destroyed the Persian Empire
- soldiers mutinied
- died at Babylon
The Hellenistic Period (323-30 BC)
ALEXANDRIA, Egypt became capital
the spread and subsequent transformation of Greek culture and civilization throughout Alexander’s empire.
- In Egypt became center of Greece culture
- Museums and Libraries
- The Pharos aka “Lighthouse of Alexandria,” (a 7 wonder of ancient world)