Western Civ I (Week 2)
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Western Civ I (Week 2)
Western Civ I
Ancient Greece: Origins
Greek Tribes entered the "hellas" (Greek Mainland)
Exports of pottery, metalwork, etc.
Archaic Greece: Developments
Polis (Greek city-state), Colonization, military
Greek infantrymen and foot soldiers (usually farmers)
pike, sword and shield (named after shield)
hoplites line up shoulder to shoulder 8 rows deeps and charged the enemy an raised spears
Largest Greek Polis
Strong military, Wealthy, interested in conquest and expansion, mixed gov't
Made "Helots" (slaves) out of neighboring Messenia
The Persian Wars (499-479 BC)
Greek cities were under Persian rule and they decided to revolt
BATTLE OF MARATHON
Persians vastly outnumbered the Athenians, yet the Athenians were the victors
Phalanx likely result
Greek messenger – so the story goes – ran twenty-four miles from Marathon to Athens
BATTLE OF THERMOPYLAE (480 BC)
launched by Persian King Xerxes
King Leonidas sent the 300 to defend hidden road
Battle of Salamis (480 BC)
Greek ships called Triremas
End of Persian wars at sea. Greeks won.
“Classical” Greece (480-322 BC)
“classical” means “to set a
standard.” very influential
Athens is main city
derives from the Greek demokratia, meaning “rule of the people.”
“ordinary people” could set an agenda and vote!
Assembly and the Judiciary
Similar to America
General and Politician
“Our constitution does not copy the laws of neighboring states; we are
rather a pattern to others than imitators ourselves. Its administration favors the many
instead of the few; this is why it is called a democracy…”
Women in Athens
not recognized as citizens
role in religion and watch of slaves
The Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC)
Athens major naval power of Greece
Sparta unhappy with Athens for interfering with their matters
Sparta won in 404 BC (received Persian support)
Athens gov't lost for some time
HOMER (ca 725)
Iliad (Trojan war, Achilles and Hector) and the Odyssey (Odysseus's voyage)
Sappho (ca 625)
From Lesbos - "Lesbian" stories
two types of plays
: Tragedy and Comedy
Sophokles (ca. 495-406 BC)
tragedy/comedy? play Oedipus Rex
the art of speaking and argumentation.
used by politicians in speeches
HERODOTUS (ca. 485-425 BC).
"Father of History"
wrote "The Histories"
nude "ideal" proportionate male sculpture
name means “spear-bearer”
Doric, Ionic, Corinthian column styles
reconstruction of Akropolis
Parthenon - "idealized temple"
"Porch of the Maidens"
Philosophy means "love of wisdom"
SOKRATES (470-399 BC)
“Socratic Method.” asking questions that lead in a particular direction
Not popular with Athen's gov't
Tried and executed
PLATO (427-348 BC)
disciple of Sokrates
“Theory of Forms,” an ideal form for all things
“deceptive appearance” vs. the “intellectual realm of ideas,”
wrote The Republic (ca. 360 BC).
ARISTOTLE (384-322 BC).
wrote Politics (ca. 350 BC).
taught that in order to be happy one must remove the trappings of civilization
apatheia "apathy" - emphasized that if one wanted to achieve peace and happiness that one would
have to submit to the laws of nature.
for the naturalness of animals.
believed that the gods really were not concerned about human affairs; so
for them the most logical thing to do was to find happiness here on earth.
Had you asked them if there was some kind of
absolute truth out there, they would have laughed at you and said, “Forget it! Don’t even
bother trying to figure that out.”
Called "barbarians" (means that they didn't speak greek or latin)
PHILIP OF MACEDON (382-336 BC)
father of Alexander the Great
greatly expanded the Macedonian Empire
Alexander the Great (r. 336-323 BC)
taught by Aristotle
invaded and destroyed the Persian Empire
died at Babylon
The Hellenistic Period (323-30 BC)
ALEXANDRIA, Egypt became capital
the spread and subsequent transformation of Greek culture and civilization throughout Alexander’s empire.
In Egypt became center of Greece culture
Museums and Libraries
The Pharos aka “Lighthouse of Alexandria,” (a 7 wonder of ancient world)