Western Civ I (Week 2)

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Western Civ I (Week 2)
2015-09-10 07:02:02
Western Civilization

Western Civ I
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  1. Ancient Greece: Origins
    • Greek Tribes entered the "hellas" (Greek Mainland)
    • Exports of pottery, metalwork, etc.
    • Alphabet
    • Olympic games
  2. Archaic Greece: Developments
    • Polis (Greek city-state), Colonization, military
    • Great Seafarers
  3. Hoplite
    • Greek infantrymen and foot soldiers (usually farmers)
    • pike, sword and shield (named after shield)
  4. Phalanx
    hoplites line up shoulder to shoulder 8 rows deeps and charged the enemy an raised spears
  5. Sparta
    • Largest Greek Polis
    • Strong military, Wealthy, interested in conquest and expansion, mixed gov't
    • Made "Helots" (slaves) out of neighboring Messenia
  6. The Persian Wars (499-479 BC)
    • Greek cities were under Persian rule and they decided to revolt
    • Persians revenged
    • Persians vastly outnumbered the Athenians, yet the Athenians were the victors
    • Phalanx likely result
    • Greek messenger – so the story goes – ran twenty-four miles from Marathon to Athens
    • launched by Persian King Xerxes
    • King Leonidas sent the 300 to defend hidden road
    • Persians won
  9. Battle of Salamis (480 BC)
    • Greek ships called Triremas
    • End of Persian wars at sea. Greeks won.
  10. “Classical” Greece (480-322 BC)
    • “classical” means “to set a
    • standard.” very influential
    • Athens is main city
  11. Athenian Democracy
    • derives from the Greek demokratia, meaning “rule of the people.”
    • “ordinary people” could set an agenda and vote!
    • Assembly and the Judiciary
    • Similar to America
    • General and Politician
    • “Our constitution does not copy the laws of neighboring states; we are
    • rather a pattern to others than imitators ourselves. Its administration favors the many
    • instead of the few; this is why it is called a democracy…”
  13. Women in Athens
    • not recognized as citizens
    • role in religion and watch of slaves
  14. The Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC)
    • Athens major naval power of Greece
    • Sparta unhappy with Athens for interfering with their matters
    • Sparta won in 404 BC (received Persian support)
    • Athens gov't lost for some time
  15. HOMER (ca 725)
    • Iliad (Trojan war, Achilles and Hector) and the Odyssey (Odysseus's voyage)
    • possibly blind
    • Oral storyteller
  16. Sappho (ca 625)
    • From Lesbos - "Lesbian" stories
    • female poet
  17. Greek Theater
    • two types of plays: Tragedy and Comedy
    • Amphitheater
  18. Sophokles (ca. 495-406 BC)
    tragedy/comedy? play Oedipus Rex
    • the art of speaking and argumentation.
    • used by politicians in speeches
  20. HERODOTUS (ca. 485-425 BC).
    • "Father of History"
    • wrote "The Histories"
  21. Polykleitos’s Doryphoros
    • nude "ideal" proportionate male sculpture
    • name means “spear-bearer”
  22. Greek Architecture
    • Doric, Ionic, Corinthian column styles
    • reconstruction of Akropolis
    • Parthenon - "idealized temple"
    • "Porch of the Maidens"
  23. Greek Philosophy
    Philosophy means "love of wisdom"
  24. SOKRATES (470-399 BC)
    • “Socratic Method.” asking questions that lead in a particular direction
    • Not popular with Athen's gov't
    • Tried and executed
  25. PLATO (427-348 BC)
    • disciple of Sokrates
    • “Theory of Forms,” an ideal form for all things
    • “deceptive appearance” vs. the “intellectual realm of ideas,”
    • wrote The Republic (ca. 360 BC).
  26. ARISTOTLE (384-322 BC).
    • wrote Politics (ca. 350 BC).
    • women "defective"
  27. Cynics
    taught that in order to be happy one must remove the trappings of civilization
  28. Stoics
    • apatheia "apathy" - emphasized that if one wanted to achieve peace and happiness that one would
    • have to submit to the laws of nature.
    • for the naturalness of animals.
  29. Epicureans
    • believed that the gods really were not concerned about human affairs; so
    • for them the most logical thing to do was to find happiness here on earth.
  30. Skeptics
    • Had you asked them if there was some kind of
    • absolute truth out there, they would have laughed at you and said, “Forget it! Don’t even
    • bother trying to figure that out.”
  31. Macedon
    Called "barbarians" (means that they didn't speak greek or latin)
  32. PHILIP OF MACEDON (382-336 BC)
    • father of Alexander the Great
    • greatly expanded the Macedonian Empire
  33. Alexander the Great (r. 336-323 BC)
    • taught by Aristotle
    • invaded and destroyed the Persian Empire
    • soldiers mutinied
    • died at Babylon
  34. The Hellenistic Period (323-30 BC)
    ALEXANDRIA, Egypt became capital
    the spread and subsequent transformation of Greek culture and civilization throughout Alexander’s empire.
    • In Egypt became center of Greece culture
    • Museums and Libraries
    • The Pharos aka “Lighthouse of Alexandria,” (a 7 wonder of ancient world)