Card Set Information
Description of life, cells, and cellular division (mitosis/meiosis)
4 major macromolecules
Nucleic Acid (RNA/DNA)
What is a hierarchical organization?
Sequence of things that build of each other.
All organisms have nucleic acid that provide info for protein synthesis
Living organisms get nutrients from the environment & use this to grow
Organisms interacting with their environment
What is the
the basic unit of life
2 cell types
3 Domains of Life
4 Kingdoms within Eukarya
3 Different levels of organization
Sponges- cellular grade organization
Cnidarians- tissue grade organization
"Other" Animals- organ system grade
Eukaryotic Cells (3)
DNA bound by a nuclear membrane
contain membranous organelles
Maintain internal balance
- food/H2O in
- waste out
Plasma Membrane Function
Maintain cellular integrity
What is selective permeability?
H2O allowed in plasma membrane
solutes not allowed in plasma membrane
What is the plasma membrane composed of?
2 layers of lipid molecules
Proteins partially/ wholly embedded
What is the function of the proteins in the plasma membrane? (3)
3 mechanisms for movement of substances in & out of cells
Movement of materials from
Facilitated Diffusion (2)
Membrane proteins create channels for materials to cross
No energy required
Active Transport (2)
Transports against concentration gradients
Uses energy- ATP
Cell membrane takes things in by forming a vesicle
Transport molecules outside of cell with fusion of a vesicle
Why is mitosis important?
For production of cells/organisms
Which cells don't undergo mitosis?
Germ Cells (sperm/egg)
3 Steps of Mitosis
- DNA duplicated
- DNA move to opposite side of parent cell
- parent cell splits
Why is mitosis good? (3)
Why is mitosis bad?
Cancer- mitosis doesn't stop
How does cancer occur?
Genes involved in "starting"/"stopping" mitosis are muted
3 Causes of Cancer
Random error in DNA replication
No exchange of genetic material
Reproduction of genetic material
Human Karyotype (3)
Most animals are
Chromosomes occur in pairs
Members of a pair are
What is meiosis?
Genetic material replicates once and cells divide in