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4 major macromolecules
- Lipids (fats)
- Nucleic Acid (RNA/DNA)
What is a hierarchical organization?
- Sequence of things that build of each other.
All organisms have nucleic acid that provide info for protein synthesis
Living organisms get nutrients from the environment & use this to grow
Organisms interacting with their environment
What is the Cell?
the basic unit of life
3 Domains of Life
- Archaea- prokaryotic
- Bacteria- prokaryotic
- Eukarya- eukaryotic
4 Kingdoms within Eukarya
3 Different levels of organization
- Sponges- cellular grade organization
- Cnidarians- tissue grade organization
- "Other" Animals- organ system grade
Eukaryotic Cells (3)
- True Nucleus
- DNA bound by a nuclear membrane
- contain membranous organelles
- Maintain internal balance
- Isolation- food/H2O in
- Exchange- waste out
Plasma Membrane Function
- Maintain cellular integrity
- Selective Permeability
What is selective permeability?
- H2O allowed in plasma membrane
- solutes not allowed in plasma membrane
What is the plasma membrane composed of?
- 2 layers of lipid molecules
- Proteins partially/ wholly embedded
What is the function of the proteins in the plasma membrane? (3)
- Recognition Sites
- Transport Vehicles
3 mechanisms for movement of substances in & out of cells
- Active Transport
- Endocytosis/ Exocytosis
Movement of materials from high concentration to low concentration
Facilitated Diffusion (2)
- Membrane proteins create channels for materials to cross
- No energy required
Active Transport (2)
- Transports against concentration gradients
- Uses energy- ATP
Cell membrane takes things in by forming a vesicle
Transport molecules outside of cell with fusion of a vesicle
Why is mitosis important?
For production of cells/organisms
Which cells don't undergo mitosis?
Germ Cells (sperm/egg)
3 Steps of Mitosis
- 1) Replication- DNA duplicated
- 2) Mitosis- DNA move to opposite side of parent cell
- 3) Cytokineses- parent cell splits
Why is mitosis bad?
Cancer- mitosis doesn't stop
How does cancer occur?
Genes involved in "starting"/"stopping" mitosis are muted
3 Causes of Cancer
- Random error in DNA replication
- Outside Sources
- No exchange of genetic material
- 2 identical diploid daughter cells
- Reproduction of genetic material
- 4 non-identical Haploid daughter cells
Human Karyotype (3)
- Most animals are diploid
- Chromosomes occur in pairs
- Members of a pair are homologous
What is meiosis?
Genetic material replicates once and cells divide in two rounds
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