Cellular Level

Card Set Information

Author:
lduran8
ID:
307505
Filename:
Cellular Level
Updated:
2015-09-08 03:13:03
Tags:
Zoology Cells
Folders:
Zoology
Description:
Description of life, cells, and cellular division (mitosis/meiosis)
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  1. 4 major macromolecules
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids (fats)
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic Acid (RNA/DNA)
  2. What is a hierarchical organization?
    • Sequence of things that build of each other.
    • (tissue-organ-organism)
  3. Genetic Program
    All organisms have nucleic acid that provide info for protein synthesis
  4. Metabolism
    Living organisms get nutrients from the environment & use this to grow
  5. Ecology
    Organisms interacting with their environment
  6. What is the Cell?
    the basic unit of life
  7. 2 cell types
    • Prokaryotic
    • Eukaryotic
  8. 3 Domains of Life
    • Archaea- prokaryotic
    • Bacteria- prokaryotic
    • Eukarya- eukaryotic
  9. 4 Kingdoms within Eukarya
    • Animalia 
    • Plantae
    • Fungi
    • Protista
  10. 3 Different levels of organization
    • Sponges- cellular grade organization
    • Cnidarians- tissue grade organization
    • "Other" Animals- organ system grade
  11. Eukaryotic Cells (3)
    • True Nucleus
    • DNA bound by a nuclear membrane
    • contain membranous organelles
  12. Homeostasis (3)
    • Maintain internal balance
    • Isolation- food/H2O in 
    • Exchange- waste out
  13. Plasma Membrane Function
    • Maintain cellular integrity
    • Selective Permeability
  14. What is selective permeability?
    • H2O allowed in plasma membrane
    • solutes not allowed in plasma membrane
  15. What is the plasma membrane composed of?
    • 2 layers of lipid molecules
    • Proteins partially/ wholly embedded
  16. What is the function of the proteins in the plasma membrane? (3)
    • Receptors
    • Recognition Sites
    • Transport Vehicles
  17. 3 mechanisms for movement of substances in & out of cells
    • Diffusion
    • Active Transport
    • Endocytosis/ Exocytosis
  18. Diffusion
    Movement of materials from high concentration to low concentration

  19. Facilitated Diffusion (2)
    • Membrane proteins create channels for materials to cross
    • No energy required
  20. Active Transport (2)
    • Transports against concentration gradients
    • Uses energy- ATP
  21. Endocytosis
    Cell membrane takes things in by forming a vesicle
  22. Exocytosis
    Transport molecules outside of cell with fusion of a vesicle
  23. Why is mitosis important?
    For production of cells/organisms
  24. Which cells don't undergo mitosis?
    Germ Cells (sperm/egg)
  25. 3 Steps of Mitosis
    • 1) Replication- DNA duplicated
    • 2) Mitosis- DNA move to opposite side of parent cell
    • 3) Cytokineses- parent cell splits
  26. Why is mitosis good? (3)
    • Growth
    • Repair
    • Reproduction
  27. Why is mitosis bad?
    Cancer- mitosis doesn't stop
  28. How does cancer occur?
    Genes involved in "starting"/"stopping" mitosis are muted
  29. 3 Causes of Cancer
    • Random error in DNA replication
    • Inherited
    • Outside Sources
  30. Mitosis (3)
    • Asexual
    • No exchange of genetic material
    • 2 identical diploid daughter cells
  31. Meiosis (3)
    • Sexual 
    • Reproduction of genetic material 
    • 4 non-identical Haploid daughter cells
  32. Human Karyotype (3)
    • Most animals are diploid
    • Chromosomes occur in pairs
    • Members of a pair are homologous
  33. What is meiosis?
    Genetic material replicates once and cells divide in two rounds

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