_______ accounts for the major sensible water loss.
The intracelluar compartment is _______ of total body water; the extracellular fluid is further divided into... (2)
2/3; interstitial fluid and plasma.
The effective circulating fluid volume includes ____________ and ultimately determines ______.
blood in the arterial side; BP
Why are the concentrations of important solutes markedly different inside cell compared to the extracellular fluid?
interstitial fluid is separated from intracellular fluid by the phospholipid bilayer, which is permeable to water but restrict passage of electrolytes
The intracellular fluid has very little __(3)__; it is rich in __(2)__.
sodium, chloride, and calcium; potassium and phosphate
The balance b/w plasma and interstitium is determined by the balance b/w _________ and _________, which is determined by ___________.
hydrostatic pressure; osmotic pressure; protein content
What are the major osmoles in the blood? (6)
sodium, chloride, potassium, bicarb, urea, and glucose
Intracellular edema occurs when the ___________ are depressed and unable to maintain the ___________.
metabolic systems; sodium gradient
Extracellular edema can occur when __________ is increased or ____________ is decreased.
capillary filtration; lymphatic drainage
Decreased ___________ decreases the power of capillaries to hold fluid in; this occurs with _________.
colloid osmotic pressure; hypoproteinemia
The majority of sodium is reabsorbed in the _________.
In the proximal tubule, the __________ moves sodium from inside the cell to the basolateral side, creating a _________ inside the cell and generating a gradient that favors ____________.
Na+K+ATPase pump; relative sodium deficit; movement of sodium from the lumen inside the cell
In the first half of the proximal tubule, sodium is reabsorbed with __(3)__ by means of the ___________.
glucose, AAs, and bicarb; Na+K+ATPase pump
In the second half of the proximal tubule, sodium is reabsorbed with ________ via a _________ pathway through ____________.
chloride; paracellular; Na+H+ countertransporter
The descending thin limb of the loop of henle is impermeable to ________ but highly permeable to _________.
The Na+K+2Cl- pump is exclusive to the ________.
ascending thick limb of the loop of henle
In the ascending thick limb of the loop of henle, sodium is reabsorbed through the _________; there's a slight backleak of ______ into the lumen, making a favorable gradient for Ca++ and Mg++ to diffuse to the _________ through a ________ pathway.
Na+K+2Cl- pump; K+; interstitium; paracelllular
What 2 mechanisms for sodium reabsorption are present in the ascending thick limb of the loop of henle?
Na+K+2Cl- pump, Na+H+ countertransporter
The collecting duct has __(2)__ for sodium reabsorption.
principal cells, intercalated cells
Principal cells in the collecting duct have __(2)__ channels in the luminal membrane; ________ is reabsorbed and ________ is excreted; ______ is also reabsorbed via a paracellular pathway.
sodium and potassium; sodium; potassium; chloride
Aldosterone increases the number of __(2)__ on the luminal side and increases the activity of _________ in the _________.
open sodium and potassium channels; Na+K+ATPase pump; collecting duct
Where are baroreceptors located?
carotid sinus, aortic arch
Increase in blood pressure stimulates reflexes that cause _________ and decrease _________, which ultimate decrease _______.
vasodilation; heart rate; blood pressure
Osmoreceptors are present in the _________; they shrink when exposed to increased ___________, ie. ________ is high. This ultimately leads to the production of _________.
low flow detected by macula densa--> renin release--> renin cleaves cirulating angiotensinogen from liver to Ang I--> Ang I ccleaved to Ang II by ACE in the lung capillaries--> Ang II goes to kidneys, vessels, adrenal