Equine- Pharmacology

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Author:
Mawad
ID:
307560
Filename:
Equine- Pharmacology
Updated:
2015-09-08 23:39:49
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vetmed basic equine pharm
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vetmed basic equine pharmacology
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  1. What drugs do you use to treat gram + bacterial infections? (6)
    penicillin, cephalosporins, oxytet, erythromycin, rifampin, chloramphenicol
  2. What drugs do you use to treat gram - bacterial infections? (5)
    gentamicin/amikacin, cephalosporins, enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol, macrolides
  3. What drugs do you reach for when treating an abscess? (5)
    tetracycline, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, rifampin, chloramphenicol
  4. Penicillins are effective against ______ bacteria; they are good for __(2)__; they do not work for __(3)__.
    gram +; strep and anaerobes; staph, bacteroides, gram -
  5. Penicillins have ______ tissue perfusion and ______ cellular penetration.
    poor (no good for abscess); poor (no good for intracellular bacteria like salmonella or potomac horse fever)
  6. Ceftiofur is an example of a ___________.
    cephalosporin
  7. Cephalosporins are effective against ________ bacteria; they are good for __(4)__; they are no good for __(2)__.
    gram =/-; streptococcal pneumonia, UTI, sepsis, meningitis; staph or pseudomonas
  8. Aminoglycosides are effective against _______ bacteria; they are good for __(3)__; they are no good for __________.
    gram -; E. coli, Salmonella, Actinobacillus; gram +
  9. Aminoglycosides are _________ (side effect).
    nephrotoxic
  10. Amikacin is an ____________.
    aminoglycoside
  11. Gentamicin is an __________.
    aminoglycoside
  12. Give an example of a broad-spetrum combination of two drug families.
    penicillin and aminoglycoside
  13. Do NOT use macrolides in _______.
    adult horses
  14. Macrolides are often used in concert with _________; they are effective against... (3)
    [IN FOALS ONLY] Rifampin; Rhodococcus, G+ abscesses
  15. Do NOT use fluoroquinolones in _________ because...
    growing animals; they cause cartilage damage/degeneration.
  16. Fluoroquinolones are __________; they are effective against ________ bacteria; they are good for __(5)__; they are no good for __(2)__.
    bactericidal; gram -; enterobacteria, salmonella, E. coli, staph, pseudomonas; anaerobes, strep
  17. Sulfonamides are effective against ______ bacteria; they are used for... (3)
    gram + and some gram -; resp infection, UTI, abscesses (with rifampin)
  18. Tetracyclines are effective for ________ bacteria; they have _______ cell penetration; they are good for __(6)__.
    gram+/-; good; abscesses, resp infection, proliferative enteropathy, potomac horse fever, ehrlichiosis, lyme disease
  19. Possible side effects of tetracyclines. (2)
    nephrotoxic, colitis
  20. Metronidazole is used against __(2)__.
    clostridium, bacteroides
  21. How would you treat endotoxemia?
    banamine, polymyxin B, fluids, control inflammation
  22. Banamine is a ________ inhibitor
    Cox-1, Cox-2, prostaglandin
  23. What toxicities are associated with banamine?
    GI and renal
  24. Phenylbutazone (bute) is a(n) ________ that is a _________.
    NSAID; cox-1/cox-2, prostaglandin inhibitor
  25. What toxicities are associated with bute?
    GI and renal- most toxic NSAID ever- cheap
  26. Ketooprofen is a __________ inhibitor.
    cox-1/cox-2, prostaglandin
  27. What toxicities are associated with ketoprofen?
    less toxic than banamine and bute
  28. Fircoxib is a ________ inhibitor.
    cox-2, prostaglandin
  29. Firocoxib was formulated for __________.
    orthopedic pain (not toxic but expensive)
  30. What glucocorticoid is used in horses, which one should not be used in horses?
    dexamethasone; don't use prednisone
  31. When is DMSO used in horses? (6)
    inflammation, acute CNS trauma, colitis, colic, endotoxemia, laminitis
  32. What is important to know before using DMSO?
    let sit in 10% solution for 20 minutes before using---exothermic reaction; wear gloves when using
  33. Clenbuterol is a _________ in the ________ family.
    bronchodilator; beta agonist
  34. Atropine is a _________ in the _________ family.
    bronchodilator; anticholinergic
  35. What tranquilizers are commonly used in horses? (4)
    ace, xylazine, detomidine, romifidine
  36. Diazepam-midazolam are ___________ used for... (3)
    benzodiazepines; sedative, anxietolytic, anticonvulsant
  37. How can you reverse diazepam-midazolam?
    flumazenil

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