Card Set Information
vetmed basic equine pharm
vetmed basic equine pharmacology
What drugs do you use to treat gram + bacterial infections? (6)
penicillin, cephalosporins, oxytet, erythromycin, rifampin, chloramphenicol
What drugs do you use to treat gram - bacterial infections? (5)
gentamicin/amikacin, cephalosporins, enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol, macrolides
What drugs do you reach for when treating an abscess? (5)
tetracycline, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, rifampin, chloramphenicol
Penicillins are effective against ______ bacteria; they are good for __(2)__; they do not work for __(3)__.
gram +; strep and anaerobes; staph, bacteroides, gram -
Penicillins have ______ tissue perfusion and ______ cellular penetration.
poor (no good for abscess); poor (no good for intracellular bacteria like salmonella or potomac horse fever)
Ceftiofur is an example of a ___________.
Cephalosporins are effective against ________ bacteria; they are good for __(4)__; they are no good for __(2)__.
gram =/-; streptococcal pneumonia, UTI, sepsis, meningitis; staph or pseudomonas
Aminoglycosides are effective against _______ bacteria; they are good for __(3)__; they are no good for __________.
gram -; E. coli, Salmonella, Actinobacillus; gram +
Aminoglycosides are _________ (side effect).
Amikacin is an ____________.
Gentamicin is an __________.
Give an example of a broad-spetrum combination of two drug families.
penicillin and aminoglycoside
Do NOT use macrolides in _______.
Macrolides are often used in concert with _________; they are effective against... (3)
[IN FOALS ONLY] Rifampin; Rhodococcus, G+ abscesses
Do NOT use fluoroquinolones in _________ because...
growing animals; they cause cartilage damage/degeneration.
Fluoroquinolones are __________; they are effective against ________ bacteria; they are good for __(5)__; they are no good for __(2)__.
bactericidal; gram -; enterobacteria, salmonella, E. coli, staph, pseudomonas; anaerobes, strep
Sulfonamides are effective against ______ bacteria; they are used for... (3)
gram + and some gram -; resp infection, UTI, abscesses (with rifampin)
Tetracyclines are effective for ________ bacteria; they have _______ cell penetration; they are good for __(6)__.
gram+/-; good; abscesses, resp infection, proliferative enteropathy, potomac horse fever, ehrlichiosis, lyme disease
Possible side effects of tetracyclines. (2)
Metronidazole is used against __(2)__.
How would you treat endotoxemia?
banamine, polymyxin B, fluids, control inflammation
Banamine is a ________ inhibitor
Cox-1, Cox-2, prostaglandin
What toxicities are associated with banamine?
GI and renal
Phenylbutazone (bute) is a(n) ________ that is a _________.
NSAID; cox-1/cox-2, prostaglandin inhibitor
What toxicities are associated with bute?
GI and renal- most toxic NSAID ever- cheap
Ketooprofen is a __________ inhibitor.
What toxicities are associated with ketoprofen?
less toxic than banamine and bute
Fircoxib is a ________ inhibitor.
Firocoxib was formulated for __________.
orthopedic pain (not toxic but expensive)
What glucocorticoid is used in horses, which one should not be used in horses?
dexamethasone; don't use prednisone
When is DMSO used in horses? (6)
inflammation, acute CNS trauma, colitis, colic, endotoxemia, laminitis
What is important to know before using DMSO?
let sit in 10% solution for 20 minutes before using---exothermic reaction; wear gloves when using
Clenbuterol is a _________ in the ________ family.
bronchodilator; beta agonist
Atropine is a _________ in the _________ family.
What tranquilizers are commonly used in horses? (4)
ace, xylazine, detomidine, romifidine
Diazepam-midazolam are ___________ used for... (3)
benzodiazepines; sedative, anxietolytic,
How can you reverse diazepam-midazolam?