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when did AD appear in recorded evidence?
3,000 years ago
what may be the first recorded history of someone renown having AD?
- Lucullus (117-58 BCE)
- Plutarch wrote about him in 75 BCE
who was AD named for?
Alois Alzheimer who described in 1906
how do people die from AD?
they don't they die from complications
how is AD's brain different?
dramatic shrinkage of cortex (outer layer involved in memory, thinking, judgment and speech)
vertical plane that divides body to left and right
divides body into front (ventral) and back (dorsal)
- differentiating between two or more conditions with similar signs
- rule out disease without doing blood work
where are high concentration of amyloid found?
in amygdala and hippocampus
major constituent of B-amyloid
microscopy of AD shows
fatty deposits in small blood vessels, dead and dying brain cells and protein amyloid in and around cells
short term memories converted to long term memories
receives sensory and limbic information and sends to cerebral cortex
secretes neurohormones, controls circadian rhythm
controls emotions and instinctive behavior, includes hippocampus, amygdala and parts of cortex
- brain disease that causes steady decline in memory and other brain functions
- confusion, memory loss, changes in way our minds work
when do dementia symptoms occur in AD?
not early stage symptoms, symptoms that appear in middle and late stages
AD accounts for how many % of all dementia symptoms?
tissue death caused by local lack of oxygen
what are three stages of AD?
- pre-clinical (prior to symptoms)
- mild cognitive impairment due to AD
- dementia due to AD
unable to find the right words
rate at which the disease is appearing
how many people are suffering in population
causes sporadic, though getting the allele does not mean you will develop disease
two important risk factors of AD
genetics and aging
motor functions, tasting, smell
how small are plaques
- losing blackberry
- forgetting to bring up dance classes (short term memory)
- forgets the author to a paper (forgets familiar names and numbers)
- restless at night (wandering)
- stops running (neglect health)
- needs notes for lectures (needs direction to function in familiar surroundings)
- lose ability to perform daily skills (finding the bathroom)
- glued to the floor
- lose ability to read or write (writing sloppily)
- can't walk
- discontinue talking
- trouble swallowing (brain not getting signal)