Recount what is meant by the term metabolism, and describe the two major phases of the metabolism of lipid soluble compounds in general terms, and where in the body metabolism takes place
- Metabolism = chemical changes made by the body
- -can make compounds LESS toxic (detoxify) or MORE toxic
- -Most important organs in metabolism (#1 is liver; next are the kidneys, intestines, and lungs; next are the skin and gonads) - if you ingest something it goes through the liver first and is often detoxified (as opposed to if you breathe something in and it moves around more before getting to the liver)
PHASE I Metabolism: Adds functional (reactive) groups to the absorbed compound (OH, O, etc.) — in this phase a xenobiotic (or other compound) is converted to an “intermediate product” (reactive group is what allows it to have a water soluble compound attached in Phase II)
PHASE II Metabolism: Adds an endogenous, water soluble molecule to the compound, creating a “secondary compound” — the secondary compound is excreted (usually by the kidneys)
Phase I and Phase II metabolism change a lipophilic compound into a hydrophilic one that can be excreted in the urine.