GU Patho Exam 1 (2)
Card Set Information
GU Patho Exam 1 (2)
GU Patho modules 2-3
What are stromal cells?
support cells in the tissue (CT, BV, etc)
What are parenchymal cells?
uniquely adapted to perform the fxn of an organ
: parenchymal cells of heart are cardiomyocytes; of liver are hepatocytes
What are mesenchymal cells?
cells of mesodermal or neural crest origin that give rise to
CT, blood, and muscle
What is an oma?
What is a carcinoma?
malignant tumor of epithelial origin
What is a sarcoma?
malignant tumor of mesenchymal origin
What is the cancer stage is M=1?
every cancer is stage IV if M=1
no penetration of basement membrane by the tumor
: polyp growing but has not grown into basement membrane
tumor has grown through basement membrane, but is still local
invasion of tumor into other organs/neighboring tissue
Four ways cancer can spread.
Direct (right out of local site)
Thru lymph nodes
Thru incisions (biopsy, surgery)
What is leiomyoma? leiomyosarcoma?
beinign tumor of smooth muscle
malignant tumor of smooth muscle
What does well-differentiated mean?
In a benign tumor, for example, it looks like the cells from which it came.
Myoma looks like myocytes; melanoma looks like melanocytes
Six things ("super powers") that a cell needs to become cancerous.
Self-sufficiency in growth signals (accelerator)
Insensitivity to anti-growth signals (brake)
Evade apoptosis (ignore the signal)
Limitless replicative potential (turns on telomerase)
Tissue invasion and metastasis
What is a proto-oncogene?
normal gene w/ normal function
a protein whose normal cellular gene can be converted into a cancer-promoting oncogene by mutation
How many mutations are needed in a proto-oncogene to make it cancerous?
Examples of proto-oncogene mutations.
: B-cell Lymphoma
: Breast or ovarian cancer & others (epidermal growth factor Receptor)
: Burkitt lymphoma, others
**Ras - various, 20-30% of ALL cancers**
Two things that can happen with chromosomal translocations.
Too much protein
Synthesis of a Novel Fusion protein (a new protein is produced that did not exist, or did exist and causes cancer)
Examples of Tumor Suppressor Genes.
: breast and ovarian (BReast CAncer)
: colorectal (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli)
: various (RetinoBlastoma)
: colorectal, endometrial, gastric
: neuroblastoma, etc. (neurofibromin)
What is a germline mutation?
A baby is born with one already mutated tumor suppressor gene
Proto-oncogenes _____ a function and need _____ how many mutations to do this?
Tumor Suppressor Genes _____ function and need how many mutations to do this?
What can happen when cancer gets into the blood?
It can travel through the blood and land on a distant organ, colonize it, and cause a secondary cancer site
How can cancer spread through surgery?
The scalpel can drag cancer cells into neighboring tissue
How does a cancer cell develop limitless replicative potential?
turns on telomerase, which keeps the telomeres from getting too short and signaling the cell to stop growing
B-cell Lymphoma proto-oncogene mutation
HER2/neu (erbB-2) mutation
Breast or Ovarian cancer proto-oncogene mutation
Neuroblastoma proto-oncogene mutation
Burkitt Lymphoma proto-oncogene mutation
20-30% of ALL cancers
Tumor Suppressor Gene mutation for various cancers
BRCA1, BRCA2 mutation
Tumor Suppressor Gene mutation for
east and ovarian
BRCA1 is the DNA repair molecule
Tumor Suppressor Gene mutation for colorectal cancer (
Tumor Suppressor Gene mutation for colorectal, endometrial, & gastric cancers
NF-1, NF-2 mutation
Tumor Suppressor Gene mutation for Neuroblastoma (neurofibromin)
_____ is one of several targets of the activated RAS pathway.
How does RB play a role in cancer?
RB (retinoblastoma gene) is a protein assoc with checkpt b/w G1 & S where DNA is REPLICATED.
It sends anti-growth signals if it finds a bad cell. If
RB genes are missing or bad, this checkpoint is lost.
Now the bad cell can continue to grow.
What is the job of P53?
Tumor Suppressor Gene
activates processes to repair defective DNA
stops cell cycle until DNA is repaired
if repair fails, apoptosis is triggered
How does P53 play a role in cancer?
If BOTH P53 genes are bad, there is no checkpoint to stop bad DNA from continuing through the cell cycle
defective DNA can then become cancer
What size tumor can cause death?
How is sustained angiogenesis triggered?
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is secreted by the tumor
VEGF triggers BV to grow in tumor
How is the limitless replicative potential turned on for a tumor?
It turns on telomerase to prevent shortening of telomeres
What are the steps a cancer cell takes to escape it's parent tissue and migrate?
breaks down collagenase to dissolve the basement membrane
attaches to something below the basement membrane (like fibronectin) & pulls itself away
migrates to CT below epithelial cells
What are the main sites of metastatic tumors?
lungs (most popular)
liver (common w/ GI cancers)
What is the function of viral protein E7?
disables the Rb protein, which means a checkpoint is lost; causes increased rate of mutated cell accumulation
What is the function of viral protein 6?
neutralizes P53, inhibiting a checkpoint; causes increased rate of mutated cell accumulation
Other tissues affected by chemotherapy that contain rapidly dividing cells.
GI Tract (esp sm intestine)
Bone Marrow (anemia, neutropenia)
Hair follicles (mostly head)
Skin (thin skin, rashes)
What makes up plasma?
: ~7% are plasma proteins made in the liver; ~3% are electrolytes, gases, nutrients, waste, & hormones
Of what are the plasma proteins made? What are their fxns?
albumin (60%): oncotic pressure, carrier molecule
What is the function of alpha & beta globulins?
carrier proteins for lipids & fat-soluble vitamins
Where are gamma globulins/antibodies made?
in lymph node or other lymph organs
The 3 main plasma proteins.
What type of WBCs will be elevated with type I hypersensitivity rxns?
Which types of RBCs are granulocytes?
(also mast cells)
Function of mast cells.
cause vascular permeability & smooth muscle cell contraction
What are granulocytes?
tiny membrane-bound granules filled with:
digestive enzymes (kill microorganisms) &
biochemical mediators (inflammation & immunity)
What is the main function of agranulocytes?
create immunity (lymphocytes)
WHich cells are agranulocytes?
lymphocytes (B-, T-, & NK-cells)
Function of NK-cells.
provide immunity against virus-infected and tumor cells w/o prior exposure to antigens
Additional stores of platelets are where?
in the spleen
Primary lymph organs.
Secondary lymph organs.
Peyer's Patches on sm intestine
What happens in the white splenic pulp?
lymphocytes illicit an immune response to blood-borne pathogens
What happens in the red splenic pulp?
It is the primary filtration site
macrophages phagocytose old damaged RBCs
Heme (iron) is recycled
What is differentiation when referring to hematopoiesis?
maturation of blood cells
Two types of tissue in BM.
Red (active) - hematopoietic tissue
Yellow (inactive) - adipose tissue
Three ways hempatopoiesis is accelerated.
EPO causes increased amounts of active marrow (yellow to red)
increased rate of differetiation of daughter cells
increased rate of proliferation of blood cells
What is GM-CSF?
Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor
: released from:
T-cells, endothelial cells, & fibroblasts
leads to formation of myeloid progenitor cells
become either granulocyte OR macrophage