Ch4

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Author:
BodeS
ID:
307601
Filename:
Ch4
Updated:
2015-09-17 19:04:03
Tags:
microbiology
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Description:
eukaryotes vs prokaryotes functional anatomy
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  1. eukaryotes vs. prokaryotes 
    similarities  
    • composition: nucleic acids
    • proteins
    • lipids
    • carbohydrates
    • metabolism: food
    • DNA
    • store energy
  2. eukaryotes vs. prokaryotes
    differences
    • prokaryotes: "pre-nucleus"
    • cell walls (peptidoglycan)
    • nucleoid
    • binary fission
    • eukaryotes: "true nucleus"
    • nucleus (chromosomes)
    • organelles
    • reproduction
  3. 3 basic shapes of bacteria
    • coccus
    • bacillus
    • spiral
  4. coccus
    3 major types
    • pl. cocci
    • "berries"
    • 1) tetrad
    • 2) sarcina
    • 3) random
  5. bacillus
    4 major types
    special feature
    • pl. bacilli
    • rods
    • 1) single
    • 2) diplo
    • 3) strepto
    • 4) coccobacillus
    • special feature: form endospores
  6. spiral
    3 major forms
    pathogens
    diseases
    special feature
    • 1) vibrio: curved rod
    • special feature: polar flagella
    • pathogen: Vibrio cholera
    • disease: cholera
    • 2) spirillum (pl. spirilla): rigid corkscrew 
    • special feature: external flagella
    • 3) spirochete: helical and flexible
    • special feature: endoflagella 
    • pathogen: Treponema pallidium
    • disease: syphilis
    • pathogen: Borellia burgdorferi
    • disease: lyme
    • special feature: endoflagella
  7. prokaryotic cell 
    external structure
    3 major 
    • 1) glycocalyx
    • 2) flagella and endoflagella
    • 3) fimbriae and pili
  8. bacterial virulence
    capsule
  9. bacterial identificatin
    cell wall or flagella
  10. targets of antimicrobial agents
    cell wall (Gram positive)
  11. glycocalyx
    ID
    structure
    • "sugar coat"
    • ID: polysaccharides
    • polypeptides
    • periplasmic sticky, gel-like polymer 
    • structure: capsule
    • slime-layer
  12. capsule
    ID
    structure
    fxn
    pathogen
    disease
    • structure: glycocalyx
    • ID: tightly bound gel-like adhesive polymer
    • fxn: resist phagocytic engulfment 
    • pathogen: Bacillus anthracis
    • disease: Anthrax
  13. slim-layer
    ID
    structure
    fxn
    pathogen
    disease
    • structure: glycocalyx
    • ID: loosely bound to cell wall
    • fxn: adhesion 
    • colonize
    • resist flushing
    • pathogen: Streptococcus mutans
    • disease: tooth decay
  14. biofilm
    ID
    structure
    • ID: extracellular polymeric substance (EPS)
    • structure: glycocalyx
  15. monotrichous
    a single flagellum at one pole
  16. amphitrichous
    flagella at both poles of the cell
  17. lophotrichous
    a bunch of flagella coming from one pole
  18. petritrichous
    flagella distributed over entire cell
  19. polar flagella
    at one or both ends of the cell
  20. external vs. internal
    flagella 
    • differences:
    • external
    • shape: rods
    • arrangement: polar or petritrichous
    • motility: run and tumble
    • pathogen: E. coli 
    • disease: food-borne illness
    • internal
    • shape: spirochete
    • arrangement: endoflagella
    • axial filament
    • outer sheath
    • motility: corkscrew
    • pathogen: Treponema pallidium
    • disease: syphilis
    • pathogen: Borellia burgdorferi
    • disease: lyme
  21. Fimbriae
    • ID: same structure as pili
    • coded for by chromosomes
    • fxn: adhesion
    • protein: pilin
    • subtype protein: adhesins
  22. Pili
    • ID: same structure as fimbriae
    • coded for by plasmids
    • fxn: adhesion
    • protein: pilin
    • subtype protein: adhesins
    • pathogen: Escherichia coli
    • Neisseria gonarrhea
    • diseases: UTI
    • food-borne illness
  23. plasmids
    • ID: small extrachromosal DNA
    • fxn: 1) replicate independently
    • 2) coiled pieces of DNA
    • 3) carry gene
    • 4) horizontal transfer
  24. prokaryotic DNA
    supercoiled in nucleoid
  25. prokaryotic vs eurkaryotic rRNA
    fxn
    special feature
    • prokaryotic: 70S
    • large subunit: 50S
    • small subunit: 30S

    • eukaryotic: 80S
    • large subunit: 60S
    • small subunit: 40S

    • fxn: sedimentation rate
    • special feature: antibiotics target subunits
  26. inclusion
    • ID: deposits on prokaryotic cytoplasm
    • fxn: energy reserve
  27. inclusion 
    subtypes
    • subtypes:
    • 1) volutin (PO4)
    • 2) polysaccharides (glygogen)
    • 3) lipid (poly B butylhydroxyhydrate)
    • 4) sulfur granules (electron source)
    • 5) carboxysomes (enzymes: ribulose, carboxylase)
    • 6) gas vacuoles (buoyancy )
    • 7) magnetosomes (iron oxide, oceanic magnetic fields)
  28. semi-permeable membrane?
    barrier with selective permeability
  29. proteins in plasma membrane
    types
    fxn
    • types: peripheral 
    • integral
    • peripheral fxn: enzymes
    • catalyze chemical reactions
    • produce ATP
    • integral fxn: diffusion
    • facilitated transport
    • active transport
  30. integral protein in plasma membrane
    subtypes
    • transmembrane protein
    • ex: carrier protein 
    • channels
    • ex: aquaporin
  31. Mycobacterium cell wall
    ID
    type
    subtype
    • ID: mycolic acid
    • stain type: differential 
    • stain subtype: acid-fast stain
  32. cell wall  
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • ID: peptidoglycan 
    • fxn: surround and protect cell
    • location: periplasmic membrane
  33. peptidoglycan
    ID
    fxn
    structure
    • ID: macromolecular network 
    • fxn: surrounds and protects cell wall
    • structure: disaccharides chain and polypeptide
  34. disaccharide chain
    peptidoglycan
    structure
    location
    • ID: periplasmic membrane
    • fxn: surrounds/protects cell wall 
    • structure: monosaccharides
    • location: periplasmic cell wall
  35. monosacharides
    peptidoglycan
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • ID: (G) N-acetylglucosamine (NAG)
    • (M) N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM)
    • (G/M) bactoprenol
    • fxn: NAM attaches to NAM
    • NAM attaches to string of polypeptide
    • location: periplasmic space
  36. bactoprenol
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • ID: peptidoglycan
    • fxn: usher G/M to periplasm
    • location: periplasmic space
  37. polypeptide
    peptidoglycan
    structure
    location
    • ID: Lattice
    • fxn: surrounds/protects cell wall
    • structure: 4 amino acids
    • location: periplasmic cell wall
  38. amino acids in peptidoglycan
    strutcture
    structure: L form & D form
  39. polypeptide bonds
    peptidoglycan
    • tetrapeptide bond
    • peptide cross-bridge
  40. tetrapeptide bonds
    ID
    Fxn
    loction
    • ID: polypeptide bond 
    • fxn: NAM attaches to NAM
    • location: periplasmic membrane
  41. peptide cross-bridge
    peptidoglycan
    • ID: polypeptide bonds
    • fxn: 4 amino acids attach to NAMs backbone
    • location: periplasmic membrane
  42. teichoic acids
    ID
    FXN
    structure
    location
    • iD: Gram positive cell wall
    • fxn: specific xport acids
    • stucture: lipoteichoic acid
    • teichoic acid
    • location: periplasmic membrane
  43. lipoproteins
    ID
    FXN
    structure
    location
    • ID: Gram negative
    • covalent bond
    • fxn: specific xport proteins 
    • structure: degradative enzymes
    • location: periplasm
  44. lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
    • ID: endotoxic
    • structure:
    • 1) lipid A: toxic part
    • 2) core polysaccharide
    • 3) O polysaccharide: bacterial attachment to mammalian cells
    • location: periplasm
  45. hopanoid
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • ID: sterol-like molecule
    • fxn: help stabilize membrane
    • location: plasma membrane
  46. O polysaccharide
    ID
    fxn
    location
    structure
    • ID: lipopolysaccharides (LPS)
    • fxn: changes in exact sugar make-up account for continued pathogenicity
    • location: Gram negative cell wall
    • structure: pepitidoglycan
  47. Gram positive vs. Gram negative
    peptidoglycan
    layer
    • Gram positive
    • layer: thick
    • structure: teiloic acids

    • Gram negative
    • layer: thin
    • structure: outer membrane
    • lipopolysaccharides (LPS)
    • periplasm
    • porins
  48. endospore
    • ID: dormant or vegetative cell
    • fxn: response to environment attach
    • structure: hydrolyzed (no H2O)
    • supercoiled
    • special feature: DNA chaperones
    • rRNA
  49. sporecoat
    fxn: protect keep out

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