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What is Medical Students Disease?
A student trying to Dx. Everyone they come into contact with
What was the tentative definition for abnormal behavior presented in class?
- Statistical deviance is actual term for abnormal.
- Tentative is deviance from the norm.
What aspects did it combine with abnormal behavior?
- Personal distress – common with dx.
- Social deviance
- Disability- common with dx. Dysfunction- based on machine model, has impaired cognitive abilities.
What are some of the different fields in the mental health profession?
Biological (Somatogenesis) and psychogenesis (behavioral)
How are Somatogensis and psychogensis different from one another?
Somatogenesis looks for a biological component and psychogenesis focuses on behavioral reasons.
What is required for a scientific attitude as presented in class?
Core spirit is defined by attitude, by being non-dogmatic, skeptical, and empirical
What is somatogenesis?
origin is in the body, looking for biological reasons
What is psychogenesis? (terms described in class, related to book concepts)
Looking for mental causes / explanations for mental illness (non-biological)
How have the mentally ill been treated, historically?
Tortured, murdered, put in isolation
Understand how asylums were used in the past (for example, for entertainment)
Rich use to have socials and watch the Asylum through glass
What is deinstitutionalization and how has it affected the way mental patients are treated today?
A time when society tried to change the way we treated afflicted individuals and develop tests to see if some of them could live in society productive to help alleviate some of the congestion in the asylums
What was moral treatment?
Quakers believed in standing up for the mental ill. First abolitionist helped with Underground Railroad.
Who was Hippocrates?
Father of modern medicine
What were the humours?
4 fluids of the body (blood, phlegm, black bile, yellow bile)
What is a paradigm, and how might it help us?
School of thought that dominates an entire field of study.
How might paradigms limit us?
There’s only one thought on the subject (close minded) Limits our perspectives
What was general paresis, and what was its relevance?
A dx where sailors were coming home ill and dieing after travel and being dx with mental illness. It connected syphyllis with mental illness and confirmed the biological connection with mental illness.
Whose work characterized the development of the psychogenic (psychological) approach as described in the book?
Understand that Freud developed many of his ideas from case studies What are the psychoanalytic parts of the mind?
Id, ego, superego
What is the pleasure principle?
Id wants satisfaction now
The reality principle?
Ego- mediates the Id and reality
What primary and secondary process?
Eros – instincts toward life libido, pleasure seeking
Thanos – instincts toward death, destructive and aggressive
What are the psychosexual stages?
How does conscience develop, according to Freud?
Through the ego
What are defense mechanisms? Be able to recognize those presented in class or the book.
- reaction formation,
What are some criticisms of psychoanalysis?
It tends to be post-dictive instead of predictive
Tendency to reify concepts
Too much focus on instincts, especially sex
Theory as a whole not testable
How did the ideas of Jung and Adler diverge from classical Freudian concepts?
Jung hypothesized there is a collective unconscious of archetypes.
Masculine and feminine traits were blended and Spiritual and religious urges are basic as id urges.
Introversion vs. extroversion
Adler developed the individual psychology regarding people as inextricably tied to their society.
Stressed working towards goals for society like Jung.
Focused on helping people change their illogical and mistaken ideas and expectations.
What is classical conditioning?
A basic form of learning in which existing reflex responses come to be elicited by new stimuli (also known as respondent conditioning)
Learning based on the consequences of responding
Watching others and being influenced by their behavior. Some say this may be just another form of operant conditioning.
How are they all relevant to the study of psychopathology?
Some of these techniques were used to treat patients.
What is some techniques used in behavior therapy?
To treat phobias: systematic desensitization
How is this approach different from insight therapies?
Therapy involves the cognition processes of an individual
How are cognitive and behavioral approaches similar/different? Be familiar with Beck and Ellis approaches(Ch1and2)
They both treat for the betterment of patientCognitive uses techniques like [REBT] rational-emotive behavior therapy and behavioral use operant conditioning or modeling
What are the dominant mental health professions that study psychopathology?
Marriage and family counselors
How do the mental health professions vary from each other?
Field of study
Be familiar with the basic paradigms discussed in class or the book Genetic ParadigmNeuroscience ParadigmCognitive Behavioral Paradigm
Genetic paradigm is the study of genes and how they play a part in behavior
neuroscience paradigm is the study of how processes of the brain are linked to disorders.
cognitive Behavioral paradigm is the study of how behavior is linked to learning principles and cognitive sciences.
What are some of the underlying assumptions to a psychoanalytic approach?
Our behavior is determined by our past experience We are not consciously aware of most important factors determining our behavior.(We have conscious, preconscious, and unconscious mind) Our behavior is predominantly irrational - forces driving us are primitive, sexual and aggressive forces. We are in a constant state of internal conflict. Our behavior is in part determined by how we respond to this conflict.
What are some importance concepts in psychoanalytic treatments?
Analysis of transference
How is classical psychoanalysis different from psychoanalytically-oriented psychotherapy?
Don’t focus as much on childhood
What is free association?
Say what comes to mind with no censoring
The analylist points out the meaning of certain of a person’s behaviors.
What is countertransference?
Opposite of transference therapist falls in love with client
What is transference?
Client treats therapist as an important person from the clients past (falling in love with therapist)
How are transference /nontransference concepts potentially useful for therapists?
They are a principal focus of interpretation
What is the concept of abstinence in psychoanalytic treatment?
Quitting the behavior, refraining from behaviors that gratify.
What is neutrality?
Therapist is neutral in respect to the client. Neutral on clients thoughts.
What is ego analysis?
Psychoanalytical study of the ways in which the ego resolves internal conflicts and develops a mature capacity for rational thought and action.
What is behavior genetics?
Study of the degree to which genes and environmental factors influence behavior.What genes run in families.
What are the different research approaches used in behavior genetics?
(Family method, twin method, adoption studies)
What is genotype and phenotype?
Genotype – total genetic makeup of an individual, cannot be observed outwardly.
Phenotype – totality of OBSERVABLE behavioral characteristics (anxiety level), changes over time.
What is the general approach of molecular genetics?
Studies that seek to ID particular genes and their functions.
What does biochemistry research look at? Be able to name different parts of a neuron
The correlation between the brain/NS with behavioral disorders
What types of interventions were developed through the biological paradigm?
The use of pharmaceuticals
what is epigenetics?
The study of how the environment can alter gene expression or function.
When synaptic connections are eliminated it is called____
The major connection between the 2 hemispheres of brain?
One important are of the cortex related to psychopathology?
Prefrontal cortex helps to regulate the _____. which is important in many disorders.
relay station for all sensory pathways?
The brainstem is made up of the ____ and ____.
the limbic system supports the _____and ____ ____ of emotions.
Limbic system is made up of:
- antrior cingulate
- septal area
Hippocampus is associated with:
hypothalmus is associated with:
- regulating mettabolism
Amydgala is associated with:
important area for attention to emotionally salient stimuli
HPA Axis is central to the body's response to stress. What does HPA stand for?
What are the differences between a methodological behaviorist and a radical behaviorist approach?
Issue Methodological Behaviorism Radical BehaviorismWhat is the role of Cannot study it (methodological) Can study it, but it is not the private experience? It causes behavior (cognitive) cause of behavior Criterion of truth Public agreement Pragmatism Core metaphor Mechanistic Contextualistic Basic approach Structural Functional Watson Skinner
What is the difference between a structural and a functional approach?
- Structural – stored memories
- Functional – observed behavior
How is this different from a radical behavioral approach?
Emphasize that how people construe themselves and the world is a major determinant of psychological disorders.Emphasizes the influence of the environment on observable behavior. Rejects the use of internal events to explain behavior and views thoughts and feelings as behaviors that themselves need to be explained.
What are some positions of the humanistic and existential approaches?
- Carl Rogers – client-centered therapy [humanistic] therapy about self-esteem, valuing yourself, right to choose own path. Therapist is a helper/guide to help client to find answers themselves. Emphasized qualities of therapist
- 1] Genuineness
- 2] accurate empathy
- 3] unconditional positive regard
- 4] silence
- Existential therapy – 108 min make own choices like humanistic but more like psychoanalysis.
- Yalom –
- 1] death
- 2] aloneness
- 3] meaninglessness
- 4] freedom
What is interpersonal therapy?
Emphasizes the importance of current relationships in a person’s life and how the problems in these relationships con contribute to psychological symptoms.
What is the diathesis-stress model?
Model that focuses on the interaction between a predisposition toward disease and environmental or life disturbances.