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medial: closer to medial plane
Further from the median plane
toward the ground
What head term corresponds to "cranial" in the rest of the body?
For what is the term dorsal used
Surface of the body away from the ground and the surface below the proximal carpus and tarsus directed toward the head (Surface opposite the palmar/plantar)
What surfaces below the "top" proximal end of the carpus/tarsus are directed toward the tail/ground?
Part closer to a point of attachment or to the trunk
Part farther from a point of attachment or to the trunk
For what is the term peripheral used?
A part distal from its point of origin or near the surface
closer to the longitudial axis of the limb
part closer to a point of attachment or to the trunk of the limb
Where is the axis of a limb in relation to the digits
between the 3rd and 4th digits
Define external or superficial and internal or deep
Closer to / further from the outer surface of a structure respectively
divides the body into unequal right and left parts
median or med-sagittal plane
divides the body into equal right and left parts
transverse plane or cross section
plane divides the body into cranial and caudal parts or cuts at right angle to its long axis
what are sections, list two
cuts through the planes of the body: sagittal section, transverse or cross section
list human term and where they correspond to where they are used in veterinary medicine
- anterior: cranial on limbs, rostral on face and ventral on body
- posterior:caudal on limbs and head; dorsal on body
- superior and inferior: dorsal and ventral respectively
- correctly used for eyes and certain head structures
skeleton can be divided into 3 portions
axial appendicular and visceral
3 parts of the axial skeleton
skull, vertebral (spinal) column, thorax
the vertebral column consists of what five regions?
cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and caudal(coccygeal)
what connects the thoracic girdle to the axial skeleton?
muscle attachments (synsarcosis) (clavicle is rudimentary)
list regions of the thoracic limb and the bones each includes
- antebrachium:ulna and radius
- carpus:carpal bones
- manus:carpal metacarpal, phalangeal and sesamoid bones
- digits:proximal,middle,distal phalanges and associated sesamoid bones
regions of the pelvic limb and bones each includes
- Pelvis/pelvic girdle:hip bones ilium,pubis,ischium) sacrum and first caudal vertebrae
- stifle:femur,tibia, and fibula
- crus:tibia and fibula
- tarsus/hock: tarsal bones, pes: tarsal,metatarsal,phalangeal, and sesamoid bones
- digits:proximal, middle, distal phalanges and associated sesamoid bones
parts of long bone
- two ends: epiphyses
- body: diaphysis
what joins the diaphysis to the epiphysis in mature bones
fibrous covering of bone not covered by articular cartilage
compact bone surrounding the medullary cavity
compact or cancellous (spongy)
what are the two methods of osteogenesis
intramembranous (flat bones) and endochondral (intracartilaginous) (long bones)
In endochondral (intracartilaginous) ossification, where are the centers of ossification located?
Diaphysis and two epiphyses
lengthening of long bones occurs in what area?
outer growth plate (epiphyseal side of plate)
what are two different types of growth plates? give an example of each
- traction (olecranon, calcaneus)
- compression(most of rest)