1 Body Anatomy

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Author:
mlamaste
ID:
30762
Filename:
1 Body Anatomy
Updated:
2010-08-22 12:20:39
Tags:
veterinary anatomy
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Description:
descriptive terms, skeleton, bones, ossification, parts of bones
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  1. Define medial
    medial: closer to medial plane
  2. Define lateral
    Further from the median plane
  3. Cranial
    toward the head
  4. Caudal
    toward the tail
  5. ventral
    toward the ground
  6. What head term corresponds to "cranial" in the rest of the body?
    rostral
  7. For what is the term dorsal used
    Surface of the body away from the ground and the surface below the proximal carpus and tarsus directed toward the head (Surface opposite the palmar/plantar)
  8. What surfaces below the "top" proximal end of the carpus/tarsus are directed toward the tail/ground?
    Palmar/Plantar
  9. Proximal
    Part closer to a point of attachment or to the trunk
  10. Distal
    Part farther from a point of attachment or to the trunk
  11. For what is the term peripheral used?
    A part distal from its point of origin or near the surface
  12. axial
    closer to the longitudial axis of the limb
  13. abaxial
    part closer to a point of attachment or to the trunk of the limb
  14. Where is the axis of a limb in relation to the digits
    between the 3rd and 4th digits
  15. Define external or superficial and internal or deep
    Closer to / further from the outer surface of a structure respectively
  16. Sagittal plane
    divides the body into unequal right and left parts
  17. median or med-sagittal plane
    divides the body into equal right and left parts
  18. transverse plane or cross section
    plane divides the body into cranial and caudal parts or cuts at right angle to its long axis
  19. what are sections, list two
    cuts through the planes of the body: sagittal section, transverse or cross section
  20. list human term and where they correspond to where they are used in veterinary medicine
    • anterior: cranial on limbs, rostral on face and ventral on body
    • posterior:caudal on limbs and head; dorsal on body
    • superior and inferior: dorsal and ventral respectively
    • correctly used for eyes and certain head structures
  21. skeleton can be divided into 3 portions
    axial appendicular and visceral
  22. 3 parts of the axial skeleton
    skull, vertebral (spinal) column, thorax
  23. the vertebral column consists of what five regions?
    cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and caudal(coccygeal)
  24. what connects the thoracic girdle to the axial skeleton?
    muscle attachments (synsarcosis) (clavicle is rudimentary)
  25. list regions of the thoracic limb and the bones each includes
    • Shoulder:scapula
    • brachium:humerus
    • antebrachium:ulna and radius
    • carpus:carpal bones
    • manus:carpal metacarpal, phalangeal and sesamoid bones
    • digits:proximal,middle,distal phalanges and associated sesamoid bones
  26. regions of the pelvic limb and bones each includes
    • Pelvis/pelvic girdle:hip bones ilium,pubis,ischium) sacrum and first caudal vertebrae
    • thigh:femur
    • stifle:femur,tibia, and fibula
    • crus:tibia and fibula
    • tarsus/hock: tarsal bones, pes: tarsal,metatarsal,phalangeal, and sesamoid bones
    • digits:proximal, middle, distal phalanges and associated sesamoid bones
  27. parts of long bone
    • two ends: epiphyses
    • body: diaphysis
  28. what joins the diaphysis to the epiphysis in mature bones
    metaphysis
  29. fibrous covering of bone not covered by articular cartilage
    periosteum
  30. compact bone surrounding the medullary cavity
    compact or cancellous (spongy)
  31. what are the two methods of osteogenesis
    intramembranous (flat bones) and endochondral (intracartilaginous) (long bones)
  32. In endochondral (intracartilaginous) ossification, where are the centers of ossification located?
    Diaphysis and two epiphyses
  33. lengthening of long bones occurs in what area?
    outer growth plate (epiphyseal side of plate)
  34. what are two different types of growth plates? give an example of each
    • traction (olecranon, calcaneus)
    • compression(most of rest)

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