Nutrition Exam 1
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components of food that are essential for the body
what are the essential nutrients?
- Macronutrients: -Where we find our calories
- water (H2o)
- carbohydrates (C, H, O); 4 cal/g
- fat (C, H, O); 9 cal/g
- protein (C, H, O, N); 4 cal/g
- vitamin (C, H, O)
- minerals (elements)
what are the energy-yielding nutrients.
carbohydrates, protein, and fat
______ are a source of nutrients.
all food a person usually eats or drinks
- any condition caused by excess or deficient food energy or nutrient intake (Imbalance of nutrients) refers to over or under nutrition
- under nutrition: nutrient/energy deficiency
- over nutrition: nutrient/energy excess
the ability to do work is called..
_____ are used to measure energy in food.
calories (cal; kcal)
Are the nonnutrient compounds found in plant-derived foods that have biological activity in the body.
what are examples of phytochemical
- allium compounds: lower cholesterol and bp (garlic, onions, leaks, ect)
- caratenoids: lycopene (tomatoes); lutein (broccoli); antioxidants properties (green tea)
- flavonoids: quercertin (berries) - may block carcinogens/inhibit cancer growth
Plants of the bean and pea family, with seeds that are rich in protein compared with other plant derived foods.
List of essential nutrients, and the energy some of them provide
- Protein: CHON 4 calories per gram
- Carbohydrate: CHO 4 calories per gram
- Fat: CHO 9 calories per gram
- Vitamins: CHO no energy
- Minerals: chemical element no energy
- Water: H2O no energy
what are nutrient density?
measure of nutrients provided per calorie of food (a way to measure nutritionally dense food to empty calories)
List the 5 characteristics of a healthy diet
- Adequacy: food provides enough nutrients
- Balance: choices don’t over emphasize 1 nutrient or food type at the expense of another
- Calorie: control food provides the amount of energy you need to maintain appropriate weight no more no less
- Moderation: foods do not provides excess fat, salt, sugar or unwanted constituents
- Variety: food chosen differ from one day to the next
List the major diet-related diseases
- heart disease
- diabetes mallitus
why can we not survive with just supplements?
Supplements don’t enable people to thrive over longer periods of time. Elemental diets don’t support optimal growth & health they often lead to medical compilations
who are the true nutrition experts?
- the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND):
- Registered Dietitian (RD)
- Certified Diabetes Educator (always an RD)
- Sports Dietitian (always an RD)
What are the differences between ULs, RDA/AI, and AMDRs?
- UL: Upper intake level - The highest average daily nutrient-intake level at which a nutrient can be consumed before it poses a risk of toxicity
- RDA: Recommended Dietary Allowances: are nutrient-intake goals designed to meet the requirements of 97 to 98 percent of the target group for a given nutrient
- AI: Adequate intakes: established based on the scientific data that is available. As with the RDA, the AI serves a nutrient-intake goal.
- AMDR: Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range: is the calculated range of how much energy from carbohydrates, fats, and protein is recommended for a healthy diet
List the 4 goals of the DRI Committee
- DRI = Dietary Reference Intake:
- 1. EAR - Estimated Average Requirements
- 2. RED - Reccomended Daily Allowances
- 3. AI - Adequate Intake
- 4. UL - Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
Sets of people that the DRI Committee serves
- men & women from (ages 18-65)
- pregnant women
- lactating women
A grain that maintains the same relative proportions of starchy endosperm, germ, and bran as the original.
FOOD LABEL: What is supposed to be printed in a food label by law?
- Common or usual name of the product
- Contact info of the manufacture
- The net contents in terms of weight, measure or count
- Nutrient content of the product (Nutrition Facts Panel)
- The ingredients in descending order of predominance by weight (from most ingredient to least ingredient)
FOOD LABEL: What is the significance of the ingredients list?
It tells you what it has more of and less of so that you can choose to purchase it or not (The order of the listed ingredients on a nutrition label shows the ingredients from greatest to smallest proportion)
FOOD LABEL: convert grams to calories:
Total Fat 1g , Carbohydrate 23g, Protein 3g
- FAT: 1g X 9cal=9cal
- CARB: 23g X 4cal=92cal
- PROTEIN: 3g X 4cal=12cal
- =113 Calories
FOOD LABEL: convert calories to grams:
Total Fat 1g , Carbohydrate 23g, Protein 3g
- FAT: 9cal/9g=1g
- CARB: 92cal/4g=23g
- PROTEIN: 12cal/4g=3g
FOOD LABEL: How many calories of fat is in the total package if there are a total of 14 servings in a package?
- Total fat is 1g so 1g x 9cal = 9cal
- 14 servings in the package so 9cal x 14servings=120cal of total fat
FOOD LABEL: What are Daily Values and what are they useful for?
- Are a set of nutrient standards bases on a 2,000 calories diet
- Useful for comparing food labels & making better choices when purchasing foods
FOOD PYRAMID: What is the major nutrient represented at the bottom of the pyramid?
FOOD PYRAMID: Where in the pyramid do we find most carbohydrate, most protein, most vitamins & minerals, and most saturated fats?
- Carbohydrate: Most come from wholegrain, fruits and vegetables
- Protein: Most comes from meat/meat alternative group and the milk group Vitamins and
- Minerals: Most come from fruits & vegetables
- Saturated fat : Animal products
FOOD PYRAMID: What is the significance of the location of these nutrients in the pyramid?
- bottom = eat more of
- top = eat less
Organizational levels of cells
- cells are organized into tissues (ex. muscle tissue)
- tissues group together to form organs (ex. heart)
- organs work together to form body systems (CV system (heart & lungs))
CV System (Including kidneys. Relationship of kidneys to heart)
- Heart: Pumps blood to lungs and oxygenated blood to the body
- Kidneys: filter wastes from blood (which form urine)
- Relationship of Kidneys to Heart: When blood is passing through the blood carries nutrients from the intestine to the liver, which releases them to the heart which pump them to the waiting body tissues. (complications that develop from renal disease kidneys can lead to cardiovascular disease)
what is the difference between insulin and glucagon?
- insulin & glucagon are made by the pancreas
- insulin: is released is blood sugar is over 120mg/dL (usually released immediately after eating/drinking)
- glucagon: is released is blood sugar is too low (usually after fasting--ex. in the morning or 3-4 hours after meal)
Nervous system – and its relationship with nutrition: Fight/flight reaction
- NV system relationship with nutrition: In addition to nutrients oxygen and wastes, the blood carries chemical messengers, hormones, from the one system to another. Hormones communicate changing conditions that demand responses from the body organs
- Fight/flight reaction or stress response: The hormonal and nervous system work together to enable a person to respond to physical danger. (When danger is detected nerves release neurotransmitters and glands supply compounds Epinephrine and Every organ of the body responds and metabolism speeds up)
Immune system- and its relationship with nutrition: What is the difference between antigen and an antibody
- Immune system relationship to nutrition: for the immune system to function properly all of the cells (phagocytes, T-cells, B-cells) depend on a steady flow of nutrients delivered to the blood stream from the digestive system
- Antigen: a microbe or substance that is foreign to the body
- Antibody: proteins made by cells of the immune system (they fight against invaders, they travel to the sight of infection killing or inactivating them)
Chemical vs. Mechanical Digestion
- Chemical: The breaking apart of food by enzymes secreted by the salivary glands, stomach, pancreas, and small intestine. Additionally, bile emulsifies fats.
- Mechanical: includes mastication (chewing) and the muscular contractions of the stomach and small intestine that mash, mix, slosh, and propel food down the alimentary canal.
to break molecules to prepare for absorption
the movement of nutrients not intentional cells after digestion
why are antacids NOT recommended for use to release heartburn?
- Heartburn: burning sensation in the chest (Heart area) caused by back flow of stomach acid into the esophagus
- Antacids: Are not recommended because they relieve pain only for a while. Ingredients in antacids interfere with the ability to absorb nutrients
- Acid reducers: Restrict normal ability to produce acid so much that it makes it harder for you to digest
what is Photosynthesis and the relationship between the sun, plants and our survival?
- Photosynthesis: plants combine carbon dioxide, water and the suns energy to for glucose (Single unit sugars)
- Plants do not use all of the energy stored in their sugars, so it remains available for use by the animal or human that consumes the plant
what is the difference between Complex and Simple Carbohydrate?
- Simple carbohydrates: are monosaccharaides and disaccharides
- Complex carbohydrate: are polysaccharide (starch, glycogen, fiber)
monosaccharaides vs. disaccharides
- Monosaccharaides: fructose, glucose, galactose
- monosaccharides —> changed to glucose before used for energy
- Disaccharides: sucrose, lactose, maltose
- disaccharides —> split into monosaccharides and then into glucose before used for energy
Starch vs. Glycogen
what’s the difference? Where is glycogen stored? What does the body have to do to use glycogen? When might it do this?
- Starch: glucose units are linked in long branched chains (enzymes can digest them) starch is plant’s storage form of glucose
- Glycogen: resembles starch but its chains are longer and highly more branched (units can be broken by enzymes) glycogen is a storage form of glucose in animals & humans
- Cellulose (fiber): the bonds that link units together are different from the bonds in starch or glycogen (enzymes cannot digest them)
what are the Carbohydrate recommendations and functions?
- Carbohydrate recommended amount: 45% to 65%
- Carbohydrate Functions: provide energy (fuel) to the brain, nerve cells and muscle tissues
What is the benefit of soluble fibers?
- Lowers blood cholesterol and help to control blood glucose (protecting against heart disease & diabetes)
- Fiber rich diets benefit the body: it normalize blood cholesterol & blood glucose. Maintain healthy bowl function (decreases risk of Colon Cancer). Healthy body weight
Impaired ability to digest lactose (due to reduced amounts of the enzyme lactase)
Protein-sparing action of carbohydrates:
Protein is indispensable to body functions & carbohydrate should be kept available precisely to prevent the use of protein energy
Undesirable high concentration of ketone bodies such as acetone, in the blood or urine
Types of diabetes: Type 1 & Type 2 (health consequences of diabetes)
- Type 1 diabetes: auto immune disease that attacks the pancrease, leaving blood glucose high and cells are undersupplied with energy. It is influenced by genetic inheritance (pancreas no longer produces insulin) so the person must receive insulin
- Responsible for 5% to 10% of diabetes cases
- Common to occur in childhood and later in in life
- Type 2 diabetes: The pancreas makes plenty of insulin but the body’s cells resist insulin’s action
- Responsible for 90% to 95% of diabetes cases
- Cause of type 2 diabetes weight gain, aging and physical inactivity, unhealthy diet.
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