Urinary- Azotemia

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Author:
Mawad
ID:
307647
Filename:
Urinary- Azotemia
Updated:
2015-09-10 19:37:23
Tags:
vetmed urinary azotemia
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Description:
vetmed urinary
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  1. Isosthenuria is a USG of ___________.
    1.007-10.015
  2. Hyposthenuria is a USG of _________.
    <1.007
  3. Hypersthenuria (concentrated urine) is a USG of _________.
    >1.015
  4. Normal urine SG is _________.
    1.001-1.080
  5. Loss of 66% of GFR leads to...
    loss of adequate concentrating ability.
  6. Loss of 75% of GFR leads to...
    increased BUN and creatinine.
  7. Loss of 80% of GFR leads to...
    increased phosphorous.
  8. Normal urine conc ability is dependent on... (5)
    osmoreceptors sensing increase plasma osmolality, adequate ADH, normal response to ADH by collecting duct, normal medullary conc gradient to create osmotic gradient, adequate number of functional nephrons
  9. The hallmark of pre-renal azotemia is...
    mild increase in BUN and creatinine and highly conc urine
  10. The presense of an elevated BUN and creatinine in the face of ________ urine in a dog and urine of _______ in a cat indicates some degree of renal damage is present.
    isostheuric; <1.040
  11. Common medications that can interfere with urine conc ability. (3)
    phenobarb, steroids, diuretics
  12. What non-renal diseases can interfere with urine conc ability? (7)
    DM, liver disease, porto-vascular shunt, psychogenic polydipsia, DI, cushings, addisons
  13. 5-6% dehydration leads to...
    mild loss of skin elasticity
  14. 6-8% dehydration leads to...
    dry mm, maybe depressed globes
  15. 8-10% dehydration leads to...
    persistent skin tent, slow return
  16. 10-12% dehydration leads to...
    persistent skin tent, depressed globes, dry mm, decreased perfusion
  17. 12-15% dehydration leads to...
    shock and death
  18. If BUN is higher than expected compared to creatinine, it could be due to... (4)
    severe dehydration, GI hemorrhage, emaciation, young animal
  19. If creatinine is higher than expected compared to BUN, it can be due to... (5)
    liver disease, anorexia, low protein diet, acute massive muscle injury, well-muscled animal (greyhound)
  20. Large molecular weight solutes like mannitol, glucose, and radiocontrast agents will have a greater effect on _________ than _________.
    USG; urine osmolality
  21. Ratio of clearance of a particular electrolyte to creatinine.
    fractional clearance (UxPcr/UcrPx)
  22. Fractional clearance of sodium <1% indicates __________.
    sodium conservation- pre-renal azotemia
  23. Fractional clearance of sodium >1% indicates __________.
    sodium loss- renal azotemia
  24. Water follows ________.
    sodium
  25. Low ADH goes hand-in-hand with ___________.
    hypernatremia

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