Repro- Parturition

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Repro- Parturition
2015-09-16 19:59:12
vetmed repro

vetmed reproductive system
Show Answers:

  1. _________ from the ________ is essential for pregnancy.
    Progesterone; CL
  2. Mid-gestation onward, which species main progesterone source is still the CL? (5)
    goat, dog, cat, pig, rodent
  3. Mid-gestation onward, which species main progesterone source is the placenta? (5)
    sheep, cow, mare, primate, guinea pig
  4. What are the only 2 species that do not a a fall in progesterone just prior to parturition?
    primate, guinea pig
  5. In species that switch to placental progesterone, what is the clinical implication of this?
    giving lute in the third trimester WILL NOT terminate the pregnancy, as it does in CL P4 species
  6. What are the 4 functions of progesterone in sustaining pregnancy?
    development of placenta, myometrial quiescence (no uterine contractions), closure of cervix, immunosuppress uterus (to prevent immune attack on fetus)
  7. The _______ triggers parturition.
  8. How does fetus trigger parturition?
    fetus gets too big for placenta--> insufficient oxygen--> stress--> cortisol from fetus--> cortisol triggers parturition
  9. Increased cortisol has what actions just prior to parturition?
    fetus: maturation of lungs, kidneys, brain; dam: removes progesterone block in placnta (drop in P4)--> increased enzymes--> P4 converted to estradiol--> uterus activated to produce prostaglandin F2α--> parturition; also increases repro tract secretions to wash out cervical seal
  10. In the dam, increased cortisol from fetus triggers increased _______ and increased _________.
    estradiol; prostaglandin F2α
  11. What effects does estradiol have before parturition?
    increase oxytocin receptors, increase GAP junctions in uterus (synchronous contractions), relax cervix (3)
  12. What effects does prostaglandin F2α have just before parturition? (4)
    luteolysis, stimulate relaxin to relax cervix and pelvic ligaments, myometrial contractions
  13. Uterine contractions push the fetus to the cervix, putting pressure on the cervix that causes __________ and release of _________; the fetus enters the birth canal, and the stretch of cervix and vagina causes...
    rupture of chorioallantois; allantoic fluid; increase of oxytocin release and stronger contractions (Fergusson's reflex).
  14. What 5 events help with detachment of fetal membranes?
    rupture of umbilical cord, shrinkage of chorionic villi, uterine contractions, reduced endometrial blood flow, weight of placenta/gravity
  15. Describe stage I of parturition. (4)
    myometrial contractions, cervical relaxation, fetus adopts birth posture, chorioallantois rupture
  16. Describe stage II of parturition. (3)
    fetus enters birth canal, strong uterine contractions, fetus delivered
  17. Describe stage III of parturition. (1)
    placental expulsion
  18. In litter bearing species, pregnancy with ________ may not initiate parturition because __________ is required.
    single fetus; signal from several mature fetuses
  19. Presentation.
    long axis of fetus vs. long axis of damn
  20. Position.
    spine of fetus vs. pelvis of dam (dorso-sacral, dorso-pubic, dorso-ilial)
  21. Posture.
    disposition of fetal head and limbs (extended/flexed)
  22. What are the types of OB intervention?
    assisted vaginal delivery, controlled vaginal delivery, c-secion, fetotomy
  23. Controlled vaginal delivery involves _______________.
    general anesthesia
  24. 3 cardinal rules of obstetrics.
    be clean, be gentle, use lots of lube
  25. Maternal causes of dystocia.
    failure of expulsive forces, obstruction of birth canal
  26. What can cause failure of expulsive forces?
    primary uterine interia, secondary uterine interia, uterine damage, uterine torsion, abdominal pain
  27. Fetal causes of dystocia.
    failure to initiate birth, fetopelvic disproportion, fetal maldisposition, fetal death
  28. Once second stage labor starts, how long will the fetus survive without being pulled in a mare, cow, and bitch?
    mare- 30min, cow-3-6hr, dog-1-2hr
  29. What is the first thing you need to do when trying to pull a calf vaginally?
    make space! repulsion of calf back into uterus to reposition
  30. How do you tell the front limb from the back limb when feeling a fetus during assisted delivery?
    forelimb- first two joints bend in the opposite direction, hind limbs- first two joints bend in opposite directions
  31. What 3 steps do you take to extend a flex limb?
    repulsion of proximal limb, lateral rotation of mid-limb, traction of distal limb
  32. What are the indications for a fetotomy?
    dead fetus, dilated cervix, adequate space in pelvis (if these criteria are not met, do not perform a fetotomy)
  33. What is the widest area of the dam's pelvis?
    at a 45 degree angle to the pelvic diameter
  34. How do you manipulate the fetus to prevent hip lock?
    turn the head and forelimbs at least 90 degrees to get the hips through the widest part of dam's pelvis