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Cardiac terms to know:
What 3 parts of the body are involved with perfusion?
Blood, heart, blood vessels.
Explain the blood flow through the heart.
vena cavas-->RA-->Tricuspid valve-->RV-->Pulmonary Valve-->Left P. Artery-->lungs (picks up O2)-->Left P. Vein-->LA-->Mitral Valve-->LV-->Aortic Valve-->Periphery
How does blood flow regarding pressure?
From higher to lower pressure.
Define Diastole vs Systole.
- Dia: relaxation of the heart.
- Sys: contraction of the heart.
What is CO?
What does it measure?
How do you calculate the CO (formula)?
Amount of blood pumped be each ventricle in one minute.
Measures heart's efficiency.
CO = SV X HR
What is the "ejection fraction"?
% of blood leaving the ventricle each time it contracts.
What is SV?
Amount of blood ejected from the ventricle w/ each heartbeat.
*An absolute # vs a % (ejected fraction).
SV is affected by what 4 processes?
preload, contractility, afterload, HR.
- Pre: fluid volume.
- After: amt of resistance that your heart has to pump against in order to get the blood circulating (BP is a good indicator of afterload).
Conduction system: define automaticity, excitability, conductivity, contractility, refractoriness.
What node is the pacemaker of the heart called (name the flow of impulse)?
- Automaticit: able to generate an impulse
- Excitability: able to respond to an impulse
- Conductivity: able to transmit an impulse
- Refractoriness: relaxation
Pacemaker: SA Node (-->AV node-->Bundle of HIS-->Purkinje fibers
Cardiac Action Potential: what is the difference between Depolarization vs Repolarization?
D: electrical activation; Na+ enters cell/K+ exits.
R: resting state; re-entry of K+/Na+ exits.
What are some age-related changes to:
- cardiac valves: murmur
- conduction system:
- Aorta/large arteries: more vascular resistance
- Baroreceptors: changes in BP.
What criteria affects the heart?
- Personal & family Hx (past Hx, smoking)
- Diet Hx
- Socioeconomic factors
- Elimination patterns
- Activity (sitting)
- Rest/Sleep patterns (Paroxysmal nocturnal dysnes: shortness of breath; and orthopnea; P&D)
- Cognitive functioning (brain perfusion)
- Symptom assessment (chest pain, dyspnea, fatigue, etc.)
Define Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea and orthopnea.
Paro: shortness of breath that awakens the patient, often after 1 or 2 hours of sleep, and is usually relieved in the upright position.
Orthop: breathlessness in the recumbent position, relieved by sitting or standing.
What body part can you look at that will indicate oxygenation?
VS, peripheral vascular, skin, extremities, neck, CHEST: what are the S1-S4 sounds?
- S1: apical pulse
- S2 heart sound 2
- S3: backflow of fluid into valves (lub dub dub)
- S4: noncompliant ventricle (dub lub dub)