Integument- in many vertebrates

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  1. Composed of
    • Epidermis
    • Basement membrane
    • Dermis
    • Hypodermis or superficial fascia
  2. Three components to the integument proper:
    • epidermis (outermost layer of the skin)
    • dermis (second layer of the skin)
    • hypodermis (below the dermis; often referred to as the superficial fascia; connective tissue layer, which contains adipose tissue (fat); separates the integument proper from the underlying vessel)
  3. Between the epidermis and the dermis, there is a __
    basement membrane– non-cellular material that is made in part by the epidermis and in part by the dermis
  4. Not all organisms have a __
    mucous cuticle
  5. Specialized function
    1 and 2
    • Provides a critical border between the organism and the environment
    • Forms part of the exoskeleton—thickens to resists mechanical injury This thickening exoskeleton portion helps prevent invasion (creates a barrier) of pathogens
  6. Specialized function
    3 and 4
    • It provides shape to the organism
    • It helps in regulation of osmotic pressure, which then regulates the movement of gases and solutes (ions, etc) to and from the circulation
  7. Specialized function
    5 and 6
    • Plays a role in temperature regulation
    • It houses sensory receptors, which help us monitor changes in the environment
  8. Specialized function
    7 and 8
    • It holds structures for circulation, such as feathers, insulation, such as hair, and horns, etc. for defense
    • Pigmentation in integument proper helps block harmful rays from the sunlight and also plays a role in courtship behaviors
  9. Derivatives of the skin

    ..epidermis produces?
    Epidermis produces the basal lamina, hair, feathers, baleen, claws, horns, nails, beaks, and some type of scales
  10. Derivatives of the skin

    ..dermis produces?
    Dermis produces reticular lamina, dermal bones, and osteoderms of reptiles
  11. Derivatives of the skin

    ..collectively, the epidermis and dermis?
    Collectively, epidermis and dermis form teeth, denticles, and fish scales
  12. __ and __ are part of the basement membrane
    Basal and reticular lamina
  13. Function of the epidermis in many vertebrates (aquatic ones)
    In many vertebrates, particularly the aquatic ones, the epidermis produces a mucous cuticle that is a mucous layer that sits atop the epidermis
  14. What is the function of this mucous layer?
    Function, particularly in fish, is to afford some protection to the underlying tissue, such as from bacterial invasion

    Help ensure laminar flow of water so that water flows across body surface with little or no resistance

    The mucous cuticle is also found in many amphibians, particularly those that spend some time (not all time) in the water

    • Serves similar function to that of fish
    • Additionally, it helps the skin from drying out
  15. True or False:

    Skin is the first line of defense
  16. Function of the epidermis in many vertebrates (aquatic ones)
    In terrestrial vertebrates, the epidermis does not have a mucous cuticle –instead, the surface layers contain keratinized epithelium, usually referred to as the cornified (horny) layer, specifically, the stratum corneum
  17. What does this keratinized region do? Stratum corneum?
    • This keratinized region consists of dead epidermal cells that are filled with the water-proofing protein, keratin
    • Stratum corneum plays a role in protection and prevents invasion similar to the mucous cuticle in the fish
  18. The keratinizing system
    The keratinizing system: in the bottommost layer of the skin, the stratum germanitium (basale) (stratum means layer), the epidermal cells undergo mitosis; and, as the cells in the bottom layer divide, they are pushing the cells away from the bottom layer. This causes cells to move into upper layers or strata. As they are moving through these layers, two things are taking place: Cells are dying
  19. More functions of the epidermis
    Protects against mechanical injury and waterproofs
  20. Explain epithelia.
    • Epithelia is avascular (does not have a blood supply, which is in the dermis). As a result, as they are being pushed up through those layers, they are moving away from their blood supply—their gas exchange supply, their nutrient supply, etc.
    • Before they die, they also produce keratin
  21. Explain corn and calluses.
    • Corns and calluses are an overproduction of the epidermis in a particular area of skin because of the undue pressure
    • The only mechanism that accounts for the rate of mitosis is the rate of loss at the surface
    • There is a correlation between the rate of mitosis in the germanitivum with the rate of loss at the stratum corneum
    • You are constantly losing cells. However, there are many layers of it
  22. Structure of the epidermis
    Epidermis is made of epithelium that is stratified (layered) and avascular

    All epithelia rest on a basement membrane with two components– both being acellular
  23. Explain in more detail the basement membrane.
    The epithelial portion is the basal lamina, which comes from the epithelium

    Fx of basement membrane is to anchor epithelium to connective tissue below
  24. Structure of the dermis

    - made of? 

    - basic structure?
    • Made of connective tissue, which consists of a lot of different kinds of tissue—loose, dense, adipose, cartilage, bone, etc.
    • There are a lot of different structures in the dermis

    Basic structure: made of connective tissue proper—loose and dense connective tissue
  25. Dermis in aquatic animals
    In aquatic animals, the dermis is organized into layers (plies) that are arranged in the direction of movement—an orderly array

    –The musculature of the dogfish shark is also arranged in V-shaped layers

    –These both facilitate the swimming movement the fish undergo
  26. Structure of dermis cont. 

    - layers
    Made up of two layers, the stratum compactum and the stratum superficiale (also called aerolar in higher vertebrates)

    —Stratum compactum is dense, irregular connective tissue

    –Stratum superficiale is loose, irregular connective tissue; fibers are in all different directions ‘ this is the top layer

    –The lower layer is dense irregular connective tissue and its usually referred to as the stratum compactum
  27. Function in general of dermis
    The function in general is to house the blood vessels, which nourishes the upper epidermis, as well as the dermis

    There are nerves

    There is smooth muscle, usually associated with hair follicles

    There are also glands
  28. Structure of hypodermis
    • Lies underneath the dermis—superficial fascia
    • Consists of loose CT and adipose
  29. Function of hypodermis
    Separates the skin from muscle, which lies beneath it

    It acts as an insulator to the degree that there is adipose in there
Card Set:
Integument- in many vertebrates
2015-09-11 17:42:36
Test One
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