Community test 2

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Community test 2
2015-09-11 15:28:17
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  1. Epidemiology
    the study of the distribution and determinants of health and disease in human populations
  2. _____________ is the principal science of public health
  3. Person-Place-Time model
    • Who: age, race, health, diseases
    • Where: climate, politics
    • When: week, month
  4. Descriptive Epidemiology
    • Study of the amount and distribution of disease
    • Used by public health professionals
    • Identified patterns frequently indicate possible causes of disease
  5. Analytic Epidemiology
    • Examine complex relationships among the many determinants of disease
    • Investigation of the cause of disease, or etiology
    • Example: causes of ovarian cancers in women in the area
  6. Agents of disease (etiologic factors)
    • Nutritive elements: cholesterol
    • Chemical agents: carbon monoxide
    • Physical agents: radiation
    • Infectious agents: flu
  7. Environmental Factors (Extrinsic factors)
    influence existence of the agent, exposure, or susceptibility to agent

    • Physical environment
    • Biologic environment
    • Socioeconomic environment
  8. What is the Ecosocial Approach?
    Emphasize the role of evolving macro-level socioenvironmental factors along with microbiological process in understanding health and illness

    Challenges the more individually focused risk factor approach to understanding disease origins
  9. Incidence rates
    • new cases or conditions
    • Attack rate
  10. What is an attack rate
    number of new cases of those exposed to the disease
  11. Prevalence rates
    all cases of a specific disease or condition at a given time
  12. Crude birth rate
    number of births in one year/ thousand total population
  13. Crude death rate
    # deaths in 1 year/ thousand total population
  14. Age specific mortality rate
    cancer deaths during a year/ for a particular age group X100,000
  15. Attributable risk
    estimate of the disease burden in a population
  16. Relative risk ratio
    divide the incidence rate of disease in the exposed population by the incidence rate of disease in the nonexposed population
  17. When measuring risk ratio...
    • anything over 1 means increased risk
    • anything less than 1 means decreased risk