Repro- Dz of Placenta and Fetus

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Repro- Dz of Placenta and Fetus
2015-09-11 22:12:26
vetmed repro

vetmed repro
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  1. Death of the fetus after the 20th week of pregnancy and delivery of a fully formed dead neonate.
  2. Expulsion of the products of conception from the uterus before the fetus is viable.
  3. Desiccation of a dead fetus in utero.
  4. For mummification to occur, ___________ cannot be present, and _________ must be present.
    bacterial infection; intact CL
  5. Fetal death in the presence of in utero bacterial infection and inflammation.
  6. With embryonic death, the fertilized ova dies and _________ occurs within the zona pellucida; the most common cause is __________.
    cytolysis; lethal chromosomal abnormalities
  7. For mummification to occur, fetal skin must be mature enough to resist _________.
  8. Fetal maceration and emphysema result in __(2)__; fetal ________ resist maceration.
    endometritis or pyometra; bones
  9. Fetal emphysema can be present when _________ are involved, which can lead to maternal __(2)__.
    clostridial bacteria; toxemia and death
  10. What conditions of the dam cause abortion? (4)
    circulatory failure, anemia, pyrexia, endotoxemia
  11. What are fetal causes of abortion? (7)
    bacterial, viral, mycotic, toxic, nutritional, genetic, physical
  12. What needs to be examined to diagnose the cause of abortion?
    placenta, fetus, damn, oter animals
  13. What do you sample from the fetus for culture? (6)
    placenta, stomach contents, lung, kidney, liver, thoracic fluid
  14. What do you sample from the fetus for histopath? (11)
    placenta, brain, eyelid, thymus, lung, heart, liver, spleen, kidney, adrenal, intestine
  15. Excessive fluid accumulation in allantoic sac.
  16. Hydroallantois is usually due to _____________.
    inadequate number of caruncles
  17. Fetal swallowing controls volume of amniotic fluid; failure of fetus to swallow.
  18. Hydroamnios is usually due to _____________.
    malformation of the fetus
  19. Prolonged gestation is typically caused by interference with the ________________, causing the fetal ________ to fail to produce ________.
    hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; adrenals; cortisol
  20. Non-infectious causes of abortion. (4)
    prolonged gestation, placental insufficiency due to twins or adventitial placentation, umbilical cord torsion
  21. In canines and felines, the dead fetus is usually retained until __________ and is often __________.
    normal parturition; autolysed
  22. In canines and felines, the lifespan of the CL is _________ in pregnant and non-regnant animals.
    the same
  23. In ruminants, repaid fetal death results in ____________; chronic fetal illness and death results in ____________.
    an autolysed fetus; a well preserved fetus
  24. What are the 2 BVDv biotypes?
    non-cytopathic, cytopathic
  25. Only the _______ BVDv biotype can infect the immunologically incompetent fetus and cause persistent infection.
  26. Infection with BVDv ________ leads to fetal death and expulsion.
    <100 days gestation
  27. Infection with BVDv __________ leads to teratogenic consequences, such as CNS lesions, MS lesions, respiratory, integument, and immune lesions.
    100-150 days gestation
  28. Development of ____________ can result in persistently infected BVDv animals.
    immunotolerance to NCP biotype
  29. Brucellosis organisms readily penetrate... (3)
    mucus membranes, alimentary tract, and respiratory tract.
  30. ___________ results after Brucellosis replicates in __(2)__.
    Bacteremia; neutrophils; macrophages
  31. Brucellosis affinity for ____________ in middle and late gestation leads to abortion.
    placental trophoblasts
  32. What is the gross appearance of cotyledons and intercotyledonary space of an animal with Brucellosis?
    cotyledons- brown exudate, areas of yellow necrosis; intercotyledonary space- edematous, thickened, yellow
  33. Camplyobacter is mainly transmitted ________ in cattle and by ________ in sheep.
    genitally; ingestion
  34. What are typical placental and fetal lesions with abortion due to camplyobacter? (3)
    multifocal necrotizing hepatitis, fetal bronchopneumonia, suppurative placentitis on cotyledons
  35. Leptospirosis is an important cause of abortion in... (3)
    cattle, swine, and horses.
  36. Fetuses that were aborted due to Leptospirosis are often ________ in all species.
  37. _____________ causes enzootic abortion in ewes.
    Chlamydophila abortus
  38. Chlamydophila abortus is an important cause of abortion in __(2)__.
    sheep and goats
  39. Chlamydophila organisms are transmitted ________, leading to _______ infection of the __(2)__.
    orally; chronic; intestines and placenta
  40. What placental lesions occur with Chlamydophila abortus? (4)
    dark red exudate on cotyledons, prominent vasculitis microscopically, inclusions in cytoplasm of trophoblasts, leathery cotyledonary space
  41. Coxiella burnetti is a ________ organism that causes late term abortion; __(3)__ are reservoirs.
    rickettsial; sheep, goats, and occasionally dairy cows
  42. Coxiella burnetti may cause ________ of fetal membranes; lesions are confined to the _________; it causes ________ disease.
    retention; placenta; zoonotic
  43. ___________ should always be considered with sheep and goat abortions.
    Coxiella burnetti
  44. What lesions are present on the placenta with Coxiella burnetti? (2)
    thick/leathery placenta, copious off-white exudate
  45. Mycotic abortion is prominent in __(2)__.
    cattle and horses
  46. _________ is the most common cause of mycotic abortion.