HEDU 4200 Foundations of health terms to know

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HEDU 4200 Foundations of health terms to know
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2015-10-07 17:21:06
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Health terms to know
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  1. Health
    a dynamic human state or condition that is multidimensional in nature, a resource for living, and results from interactions and adaptations to one's environment
  2. Community Health
    the health status of a defined group of people as well as the actions and conditions that protect and improve the health of the community
  3. Health Education
    any combination of planned learning experiences based on theories that provide the opportunity for the acquisition of information and skills needed to make quality health decisions
  4. health promotion
    any planned combination of educational, political, environmental, regulatory, or organizational mechanisms that are designed to support and enhance the health of individuals, communities, and groups
  5. Disease Prevention
    the process of reducing disease risk, alleviating disease, restoring and protecting health, and minimizing suffering
  6. health disparity
    population-specific difference in the presence of disease, health outcomes, or access to care
  7. global health
    health issues/problems that transcend national boundaries and are best addressed by cooperative actions and solutions
  8. population health
    the actions/conditions to promote, protect, and preserve the health of people who are not organized or identified as a group or locality
  9. public health
    the science/art of protecting and improving the health of communities through education, promotion of healthy lifestyles, and disease/injury prevention
  10. School Health
    policies, procedures, and activities to aid in the health of students and staff and which impacts learning
  11. Wellness
    the adoption of health enhancing conditions and behaviors; a lifestyle choice
  12. Epidemiology
    The study of the distributions and determinants of health-related states/events in specific populations; the application of this study to control health problems.  Root causes, addresses more than just the tip of the iceberg
  13. endemic
    typical the number you would expect to see on regular basis
  14. epidemic
    unexpectedly large - more than normal
  15. Pandemic
    over large geographical area (worldwide)
  16. health advocacy
    attempts to bring about positive change on behalf of a health goal, program, interest, or population
  17. empowerment
    process whereby people/communities gain mastery over lives/conditions
  18. cultural competence
    understanding cultural differences and responding appropriately when planning, implementing, and evaluating programs/interventions
  19. Health determinants
    factors that influence a persons health e.g. genetics, education, poverty, politics, occupation, behavior (biggest one)
  20. life expectancy
    how long one will live from a certain point (years). average number of years of life remaining to a person at a particular age and is based on a given set of age-specific death rates – generally the mortality conditions existing in the period mentioned.
  21. Health Field Concept
    government term encompassing more than health care system. Framework created for further study
  22. - health field concept key elements
    human biology, environment, lifestyle = healthy behavior, health care organizations
  23. Multi-causation disease model: non communicable diseases
    the concept of caused by many factors; have a host, agent and environment in triangle have to have all three
  24. Determinants of health
    health of populations: gestational endowment (genetic makeup), social circumstances (education, SES, housing, crime), environment conditions (toxic/microbial agents, hazards), **health behavior (lifestyle choices), access to health care
  25. 3 types of prevention
    Primary: before it starts (like clean water, no smoke, flushot)Secondary: early detection, stopping problem before it has time to take hold; Tertiary: have the problem what to do so it doesn’t get worse
  26. modifiable risk factors
    changeable or controllable (sedentary lifestyle, smoking, poor dietary habits)
  27. nonmodifiable risk factors
    nonchangeable or noncontrollable. (age, sex, inherited genes)
  28. Chain of Infectious Disease model
    - pathogen – human reservoir – portal of exit – transmission – portal of entry – establishment of disease in new host
  29. Communicable Disease model
    host, agent, environment all of have to be present to spread disease in a population
  30. Where/how health educators can have an impact
    improve the quality of life. Quality of life is usually improved when health status is improved. to create interventions (programs) that can assist people in working toward better health
  31. Egyptians
    possessed a strong sense of personal cleanliness
  32. Greeks
    • holistic approach, human body=4 humours (blood, phlegm, yellow bile, black bile)
    • The ideal Greek was perfectly balanced in mind, body, and spirit
  33. Romans:
    great engineers/builders of water (aqueducts) and sewage (underground) systems
  34. Dark ages
    many health advancements lost. cleanliness=prideful; filth=humility disease thought to be the result of sin and disobedience to God; period characterized by epidemics of infectious diseases. Other communicable disease epdemics co-existed with the plague
  35. Renaissance
    Disposal of human waste still a problem. Examination of the urine. John Hunter=father of modern surgery
  36. 1700’s age of enlightment
    Edward Jenner discovers smallpox vaccine.  Contaminated water. Philosophers promoted the worth of each human life and importance of individual health for the well being of society
  37. - 1800’s
    Lemuel Shattuck 1850 report of the sanitary commission of Massachusetts (made 50 recommendations that some are still in use today. Dr. John Snow(1849) hypothesized the cholera epidemic was spread via drinking water from broad street water pump in London. Epidemic stopped when pump handle was removed.
  38. 1875-1900
    (reform phase)Bacteriological period of public health. Beginnings of U.S. Public Health Service: “protecting, promoting, and advancing the health and safety of the nation.”
  39. 1900-present
    National health institute (NIH) established 1930. Most significant health problems are chronic ones.
  40. Healthy People 2020 – what it is
    - Vision: a society in which all people live long, healthy lives- Mission: identify nationwide health improvement priorties, increase public awareness and understanding, measurable objectives and goals at national, state, local levels; engage muptiple sectors to take actions to strengthen policies improve practices – evidence based; identify critical research, evaluation, and data collection needs- Overarching goals: attain high quality, longer lives; achieve health equity eliminate disparities; create environments that promote good health; promote good health across all stages of life
  41. philosophy
    a statement summarizing the attitudes, principles, beliefs, values, and concepts held by an individual or group.
  42. Mission Statement
    based on a philosophy. conveys philosophy, focus and direction, explains purpose/reason for being, articulates essential nature, values, and focus for future.
  43. philosophy of symmetry
    a philosophy of health with physical, emotional, spiritual, and social components of health. (physical, spiritual, environmental, social, psychological, intellectual)
  44. holism
    the philosophy that the mind and body blend into a single unit; the person is a unified being
  45. humanism
    regard human life as being important (possibly sacred) focused on making things better for people
  46. eclectic philosophy
    not one philosophy is right we draw from all of them in the health profession
  47. 5 predominant philosophies
    behavior change, cognitive based, decision-making, freeing/functioning, social change
  48. Behavior change philosophy
    focus on help people modify or change behavior
  49. cognitive based philosophy
    if we just focus on educating people; knowledge is power
  50. Decision-making philosophy
    case studies. not just one approach to a problem; individual cases
  51. freeing/functioning philosophy
    get away from victim blaming. Focus on individual what they believe, value, know
  52. 5 steps in program planning/ generalized model
    Assessing needs, setting goals and objectives, developing interventions, implementing interventions, evaluating results
  53. theory:
    set of interrelated concepts, definitions and propositions; looking for relationships. explain and predict. systematic view of events
  54. model
    like the blue print visual representation of what to do. is a composite, a mixture of ideas or concepts taken from any number of theories and used together
  55. contruct
    building blocks of theories. a concept developed, created, or adopted for use with a specific theory
  56. when you use theory and models through the whole process always begins with
    the health problem
  57. health belief model
    (intrapersonal)(predictive model) explains the likelihood of an individual to take action to prevent a disease or injury based on: perceived: susceptibility, seriousness, threat, benefits, barriers; cues to action, self-efficacy
  58. theory of planned behavior
    (intrapersonal TPB) behavior is based on intention which is based on attitude toward behavior, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, actual behavioral control. Began as theory of reasoned action then added the perceived behavioral control part a.k.a self efficacy
  59. transtheoretical model/stages of change
    (intrapersonal) precontemplation (before ready to change no intention), contemplation (consider change within 6 months), preparation (actively planning to change), action (effort to make change), maintenance (sustain change resist relapse), termination
  60. social cognitive theory
    The construct most know for is self efficacy (Banduras coined the ward)(interpersonal) learning is a reciprocal interaction between the individual’s environment, cognitive process, and behavior. people engage in behaviors when possess: behavioral capability, self efficacy, expectations, expectancies, rewards
  61. SMART
    social marketing assessment and response tool. process for influencing human behavior on a large scale using marketing principles for the purpose of societal benefit rather than commercial profit.  Most of the time you market intangible products. Central focus is consumer, composed of 7 phases:
  62. social change philosophy
    based on the idea that oftentimes best change comes about when addressed through policy legislation enacting laws
  63. 8 components of behavior change theories and models
    • intention
    • environmental factors
    • necessary skills
    • attitude
    • normative (social) pressure
    • personal norms/standards
    • emotional reaction
    • capability - self efficacy
  64. The P's of social marketing
    product, price, place, promotion
  65. Reciprocal determinism
    social cognitive theory.  Interaction b/w people and their environment we influence people they influence us

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