HEDU 4300 Research class

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HEDU 4300 Research class
2015-10-03 18:30:48
HEDU 4300

terms to know
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  1. research
    a purposeful and systematic approach to problem solving
  2. scientific method
    steps within the research process used to answer research questions
  3. Secondary source
    include sources such as textbooks, reviews of literature, and position papers that present research, but not the author (s) own research
  4. primary sources
    sources in which the author(s) actually performed the research presented and include methods, results, and discussion sections
  5. quantitative research approach
    research that relies on numerical data to reach results and conclusions.  some things are naturally quantitative some things are not so we give things numerical values e.g. attitudes beliefs.  Analyzed mathematically
  6. qualitative research approach
    research that asks how or why to explore research topic areas from the participants' descriptive perspective and thereby reach results and conclusions.  not easily answered numerically, more open-ended in nature.  analyzed by identifying themes
  7. applied research
    focuses on the application of research findings that are based on individual observations and experiences; typically conducted in field settings.  real life setting, immediate solutions
  8. basic research
    focuses on the quest for knowledge that is based on theoretical foundations; typically conducted in laboratory settings.  laboratory, theory driven
  9. research variables
    specific aspects that are measured in other research studies based on the research question
  10. continuous data
    data that includes a range of scores within an interval.  Allows for subdivision e.g. blood pressure, time, temperature, age -- subdivision=time can be measured in hours, minutes, seconds, milliseconds
  11. categorical data
    data that are mutually exclusive and place subjects in specified groups e.g. emphasis area, gender,political affiliation
  12. independent variable
    includes the grouping variable in experimental research designs.  affects the outcome you are interested in.  its what you think will affect the dependent variable
  13. dependent variable
    the outcome you are interested in.  includes the measured variable or outcome in experimental research design
  14. quasi-experimental design
    • focuses on comparing group differences in which the groups studied CANNOT BE manipulated or randomly assigned
    • sex sections of class (already in groups)
  15. true experimental design
    focuses on comparing group differences in which the groups studied are manipulated or CAN BE randomly assigned
  16. correlation research designs
    focus on determining the relationship between two continuous variables or how much the predictor variable influences the criterion variable
  17. predictor variable
    used to explain the criterion or outcome variable in correlation research designs; otherwise known as the X variable
  18. criterion variable
    the variable that is being explained by the predictor variable in correlation research designs, otherwise known as the Y variable
  19. Validity
    whether a test is measuring what is intended to be measured
  20. reliability
    consistency of the test itself with respect to internal stability, stability over time, and stability of equivalency
  21. objectivity
    consistency of the test administrator during data collection with respect to stability over time and stability of equivalency
  22. Internal validity
    the degree to which the research findings and conclusions are related to the research design and methodology
  23. external validity
    generalizability of the research findings
  24. variable
    characteristic, trait, attribute of person or thing that can be classified (i.e. only fall into categories) or measured.  classified=eye color sex; measured=skill, intelligence, heart rate
  25. six threats to internal validity
    maturation, history, test effect, instrumentation, experiment mortality, selection bias
  26. internal validity- maturation and example
    refers specifically to participants.  participants naturally develop, mature over time.  consider other things that may change over the course of your program: hunger, hydration, fatigue
  27. internal validity threat - history example
    when an event occurs at the same time as treatment/program (but is not part of it) and changes participants' behaviors or attitudes
  28. internal validity threat - testing effect
    just taking the pretest makes participants "aware" of the issue
  29. threat to internal validity - instrumentation
    equipment not working properly, also consider the person collecting the data as an instrument
  30. threat to internal validity - experiment mortality
    significant drop out
  31. What are the steps in the Scientific Method
    identify problem, research tho area, identify hypothesis/research question, research design, collect data, analyze data, findings and conclusions
  32. What happens at each step in scientific method
    identify problem, research to area, identify hypothesis/research question, research design, collect data, analyze data, findings and conclusionsWhat happens at each step? identify problem: what interested in literature reviews; research the area (concept mapping): primary sources secondary sources; hypothesis/research question: based on what learned in step 2 form question; research design: decisions based on research question quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods; collect data:?, analyze data: ?, findings and conclusions:?
  33. What is meant by the “research continuum
    ”? there is a range of how to do the research
  34. what is deductive reasoning
    deductive reasoning: observations of general information to explain specific events, several facts(general info) are woven together to produce a specific logical conclusion
  35. what is inductive reasoning
    inductive reasoning; observations of specific events to predict general principles (probable but not definite)
  36. Why is important to be a good consumer of research
    as a health educator you need to be able to give answers with the most accurate current information to the people that ask you questions, if you need to make a survey you would need to know what questions to ask and what information to include how do you find this out – research, review of literature.
  37. What are the three research approaches discussed in class
    quantitative, qualitative, mixed method
  38. What is the difference between the three research approaches discussed in class
    quantitative=focuses on numeric data; qualitative: focues on questions that are not easily answered numerically, more open-ended in nature, analyzed by identifying themes. Asks how or why to explore research topic areas from the participants perspective. Mixed methods=uses both quantitative and qualitative
  39. What is meant by “naturally quantitative” and “not naturally quantitative”?
    naturally quantitative means it asks how many or percentage where not naturally quantitative means we give things numeric values like attitudes or beliefs
  40. What is an example of a classified variable
    eye color, sex
  41. What is an example of a measured variable
    skill, intelligence, heart rate
  42. What are the variables in an experimental design called
    Independent variable (what you think will affect the dependent variable) dependant variable (the outcome you are interested in)
  43. What are the variables in regression (which is a statistical procedure used in correlation research) called?
    predictor variable (explains criterion variable), criterion variable (variable being explained by predictor)
  44. What are examples of typical quantitative measurement instruments
    mechanical or electronic equipment, observing physical performance, paper-and-pencil or online surveys
  45. What are the three characteristics of a “good” measurement instrument?
    valid, reliable, objective
  46. validity (a quantitative measurement instrument? and example
    when a test instrument is measuring what is intended;questions represent confidence rather than self-esteem
  47. reliability ( a quantitative measurment instrument)and example
    when a test/instrument measures consistently each time it is used; : take a test today on body image and take one tomorrow should have similar scores
  48. objectivity (an example of quantitative measurement instrument) and example
    consistency of the test/instrument administrator during data collection with respect to stability over time and stability of equivalency (free from bias); free from bias exam scores in this class should be similar whether teacher gives it or a student proctors it.
  49. threat to internal validity - selection bias
    (make sure participants selected randomly
  50. What are the typical sections of a research article
    IMRAD: introduction, methods, results and discussion
  51. Introduction what found in
    summary of existing literature, evidence rationale, states problem, hypotheses or question
  52. methods what found in this section
    in depth look at the nature of study several sub sections
  53. results what found in this section
    explains study findings from an analysis standpoint, tables and figures
  54. discussion what found in this section
    results restated without statistical wording, findings compared and contrasted with previous study results, how findings applied in real life, limitations
  55. What is meant by “peer-reviewed”
    other professionals (peers) review and approve the manuscript
  56. How would I go about identifying a problem for a research project
    self reflection: why did you choose your particular emphasis, what about it interest you; professional organizations: what are others in your field working on; faculty in your department: what are they up to
  57. What criteria should I consider when deciding on a research topic
    passion (really interest you); practical value (can be useful); feasibility (time money resources); critical mass (research warranted)
  58. What is meant by concept mapping
    a way to diagram relationships among ideas helps develop research topic (brainstorming), free think ideas, look for themes among ideas, put ideas in categories
  59. What do I use to guide the decision-making process when I get to Step 4 in the Scientific Method
    based on your research question. quantitative, qualitative, mixed-method approach
  60. When would I choose a quantitative approach for my research
    if involves current or past conditions (descriptive); relationships (correlation); differences effects on a particular outcome (experimental); numerical data analyzed with statistics
  61. When would I use Descriptive Research
    current or past conditions – specific setting-describe
  62. What is meant by Survey Research which is under descriptive research
    most popular, characterized by the collection of data using questionnaire forms
  63. What are the different types of items we might use on a survey or questionnaire?
    categorical items, scale items
  64. What are the advantages/disadvantages of including “neutral” responses in a scale
    not including may result in misrepresenting respondents view, helps so people maybe don’t lie because they don’t know which one to pick
  65. What are the tips to follow when creating a survey questionnaire
    keep it brief, questions clear simple, personal questions at end, don’t know at end, no double barreled questions, mindful of cultural differences
  66. What is meant by Behavioral Observational Research
    observe participants and record relevant data
  67. What are the two most common techniques used in behavioral research and their differences
    • direct or indirect
    • direct: observe in actual setting; indirect: film or video tape
  68. When would I use Experimental Research
    when describe what will be when certain variables or conditions are manipulated – differences or effects on an outcome
  69. non-experimental
    no random sampling, one group – weakest lacks internal validity
  70. What is random sampling
    where everyone has an equal opportunity to be chosen
  71. What is random assignment
    determines groups have all had an equal chance of being selected for that group
  72. When would I use Correlation Research
    when want to determine relationships between two continuous variable or the predictive ability of a continuous variable on another one
  73. When would I choose a qualitative approach for my research
    ? asks how and why, understand through participants eyes
  74. What are the basic ideas behind qualitative research
    aware of potential biases, select participants who meet a certain set of criteria, not concerned with generalizing, not quantifiable data data analyzed as text, look for trends and themes
  75. What is meant by “trustworthiness”?
    the integrity of qualitative data, how researcher assures the findings of the study are accurate and believeable
  76. What techniques can be used to ensure trustworthiness
    Prolonged engagement: spend time immersed in the setting participants comfortable; peer debriefing: researcher identifies one or two peers to discuss the data and provide alternative perspectives on findings; member checking: allows participants to make sure you understood them; triangulation: uses multiple methods to collect data that examine same variable
  77. . Prolonged engagement for trustworthiness
    spend time immersed in the setting participants comfortable
  78. peer debriefing with trustworthiness
    researcher identifies one or two peers to discuss the data and provide alternative perspectives on findings
  79. member checking with trustworthiness
    allows participants to make sure you understood them;
  80. triangulation with trustworthiness
    uses multiple methods to collect data that examine same variable
  81. What are the four typical procedures used in qualitative research
    interviews, focus groups, direct observation, stimulated recall
  82. interviews as a typical procedure to qualitative research
    sitting down withthem
  83. focus groups as a procedure for qualitative research
    include many people to discuss specific questions asked by the researcher or moderator
  84. direct observation as a technique for qualitative research
    collection of data through the eyes of a qualitative researcher
  85. stimulated recall as a technique for qualitative research
    audio or video recording of an event, then review with participants invoke emotions so have future understanding
  86. what are the four types of qualitative research
    ethnography, case study, narrative inquiry, phenomenology
  87. ethnography qualitative research design
    direct observation by a participant observer ot better understand sociocultural phenomena.
  88. case study qualitative research design
    : in-depth examination of a person, organization, incident or community
  89. narrative inquiry:qualitative research design
    involves the collection of anecdotal information that is analyzed through the eyes of the researcher or those who participated
  90. phenomenology qualitative research design
    used to better understand individual perceptions of an event
  91. When would I choose a mixed-methods approach for my research
    when you want to gather quantitative and qualitative data