A&P chapter 3

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A&P chapter 3
2015-09-12 12:09:53

A&P chapter 3
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  1. Chemistry does what?
    it explains the utilization of energy by the body
  2. basic chemistry
  3. biochemistry
    functions of living systems
  4. potential energy
    energy of position; stored (inactive) energy
  5. systems naturally move from
    high potential energy to low potential energy
  6. forms of energy
    mechanical( moves something), chemical(stores in the bonds of chemical substances), electrical(movements of charged particles), radiant(energy traveling in waves)
  7. what is heat?
    measurement of the movement of molecules
  8. what is temperature?
    measurement of how fast molecules move
  9. four elementsĀ that make up 96% of body
    oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen
  10. more or less identical building blocks for each element
  11. what does the atom # tell us
    the number of protons/electrons
  12. mass number
    equal to the mass of protons and neutrons
  13. isotope
    atoms with same number of protons but different number of neutrons
  14. radioisotopes
    unstable atoms that undergo spontaneous decay called radioactivity. They decompose to more stable forms
  15. different isotopes of the same element can..
    have different physical properties but have identical chemical properties
  16. as isotope decays...
    subatomic particles that are given off release a little energy called radioactivity
  17. molecule
    two or more same atoms combined by chemical bonds
  18. compound
    two or more different kinds of atoms chemically bonded`
  19. solutions
    homogeneous mixtures of components
  20. solvent
    substance present in greatest amount (coffe)
  21. solute
    substance present in smaller amounts (sugar)
  22. suspensions
    heterogeneous mixtures with visible solutes that tend to settle out (italian dressing)
  23. colloids or emulsions
    heterogenous mixtures whose solutes do not settle out (fog)
  24. electron shells
    energy levels that surround the nucleus of the atom
  25. valence shell
    outermost electron shell
  26. chemical bonds
    "energy relationships" between electrons of reacting atoms
  27. electrons are what?
    the subatomic particles that are involved in all chemical reactions
  28. ionic bond
    TRANSFER OF ELECTRONS(between a metal and a nonmetal) attractions between two ions

    are crystal looking (salt, mirenals, glass)
  29. covalent bond
    SHARING ELECTRONS. attraction between atoms within a molecule
  30. hydrogen bond
    attractions between polar atoms (OPPOSITE CHARGES)
  31. cation
    when an atom loses an electron so it becomes positive (more protons)
  32. anions
    when an atom gain an electrons (more electrons) so its more negative
  33. polyatomic atoms
    formed from groups of atoms and work as units
  34. nonpolar covanlent bond
    equal sharing of electrons between two atoms
  35. polar covalent bonds
    unequal sharing of electrons between two atoms (unequal distribution of charge within a molecule or compound)
  36. molecules cannot be
    ionic because there is no distinct collections of ions that are chemically bound in the crystal
  37. electronutral
    atoms with half-full valence shells

    they can take,give, or share electrons
  38. electronegative
    atoms with five, six, or seven valance shells electrons

    they will suck, borrow, or take electrons
  39. dipole
    having two different charges

    only happens between polar atoms
  40. dotted or dash lines means what?
    that they are hydrogen bonds (not too strong)
  41. cohesion
    water always wanting to stick together
  42. RIP
    reactants into Products
  43. synthesis
    bringing things together and making something new
  44. combinations of reactions
    synthesis reactions to make a new products
  45. release of energy
    reactions that result in a net realise of enerfy (give off energy)
  46. endergonic
    reactions result in a new absorption of energy (use up energy)
  47. catalysts
    increase the rate of reaction without being chemically changedĀ 

  48. chemical equilibrium
    when neither a forward nor reverse reaction is dominant