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T or F: small hydrophobic molecules can go through the cell membrane through simple diffusiion
true: this includes CO2, O2, H2O.
How do carrier proteins transport molecules?
They fold or change shape using a binding sit. When it picks up a molecule the protein changes shape so it can release it on the other side.
What is the shape of a coccus?
What is the shape of a bacillus?
What are these 3 different spiral shapes in prokayotes?
- Vibrio: comma-shaped
- Spirilla: wavy
- Spiochetes: twisted like corkscrews
What is the shape of the prefix, staphylo-?
What is the shape of the prefix, strepto-?
arangement in chains
What is the shape of the prefix, diplo-?
What are arrangements of cells called when clustered in 4s and 8s?
What would you refer a cluster of spherical cells to be named?
- Staphylo-: clustered
- cocci: spherical shaped
T or F: pepidoglycan can mainly be found on bacterial cells only
T or F: Gram-positive bacteia have a thin peptidoglycan layer within its cell wall.
False: gram-negative bacteria do
What are the outer membrane and lipopolysaccharides?
the outer membrane is found on the outside of the peptidoglycan of gram-negative cells, and along with othe lipids and sugars, is made up of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)
What is Lipid A? What can it trigger?
- Comes from lipopolysaccharides, is a toxin called endotoxin.
- Can trigge fever and shock
How do glacocalyx help the cell?
It can help it stick to surfaces, protection for resisting phagocytes
What are the two different type of glacocalyx?
- 1. Capsule: an oganized type that is firmly attached to the cell wall
- 2. Slime layer: loosely fit
What are the 3 parts flagella?
Basal body, hook, and filament
What is taxis?
What are the functions of pili or fimbriae?
allow bacteria to attach to things
What are plasmids? What are its benefits?
- Smaller circular ppieces of DNA,, apart from the nucleoid.
- - They can be passed between prokayotic cells
What are endospores?
Formed by bacteria during a harsh environment by creatng a resistant structure, lasts until conditions become better.