Structure and functions of Micro Cells

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Structure and functions of Micro Cells
2015-09-23 01:19:31
micro lecture exam 1
From the easy way book
Show Answers:

  1. T or F: small hydrophobic molecules can go through the cell membrane through simple diffusiion
    true: this includes CO2, O2, H2O.
  2. How do carrier proteins transport molecules?
    They fold or change shape using a binding sit. When it picks up a molecule the protein changes shape so it can release it on the other side. 

  3. What is the shape of a coccus?
  4. What is the shape of a bacillus?
  5. What are these 3 different spiral shapes in prokayotes?
    1. Vibrio
    2. Spirilla
    3. Spirochetes
    • Vibrio: comma-shaped
    • Spirilla: wavy
    • Spiochetes: twisted like corkscrews
  6. What is the shape of the prefix, staphylo-?
  7. What is the shape of the prefix, strepto-?
    arangement in chains
  8. What is the shape of the prefix, diplo-?
    In twos
  9. What are arrangements of cells called when clustered in 4s and 8s?
    • 4s: tetrads
    • 8s: sarcinae
  10. What would you refer a cluster of spherical cells to be named?
    • Staphylococci
    • Staphylo-: clustered
    • cocci: spherical shaped
  11. T or F: pepidoglycan can mainly be found on bacterial cells only
  12. T or F: Gram-positive bacteia have a thin peptidoglycan layer within its cell wall.
    False: gram-negative bacteria do
  13. What are the outer membrane and lipopolysaccharides?
    the outer membrane is found on the outside of the peptidoglycan of gram-negative cells, and along with othe lipids and sugars, is made up of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)
  14. What is Lipid A? What can it trigger?
    • Comes from lipopolysaccharides, is a toxin called endotoxin.
    • Can trigge fever and shock
  15. How do glacocalyx help the cell?
    It can help it stick to surfaces, protection for resisting phagocytes
  16. What are the two different type of glacocalyx?
    • 1. Capsule: an oganized type that is firmly attached to the cell wall
    • 2. Slime layer: loosely fit
  17. What are the 3 parts flagella?
    Basal body, hook, and filament
  18. What is taxis?
    Bacterial movement
  19. What are the functions of pili or fimbriae?
    allow bacteria to attach to things
  20. What are plasmids? What are its benefits?
    • Smaller circular ppieces of DNA,, apart from the nucleoid. 
    •  - They can be passed between prokayotic cells
  21. What are endospores?
    Formed by bacteria during a harsh environment by creatng a resistant structure, lasts until conditions become better.
  22. What is sporogenesis?