biology2

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mxalik_
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biology2
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2015-09-13 00:22:10
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  1. matter
    anything that occupies space and has mass
  2. element
    a substance that cant be broken down to other substances by ordinary chemical means
  3. compound
    a substance consisting of two or more different elements in a fix ratio
  4. trace element
    elements that are essential to humans

    ex. iron (fe) needed by all forms of life
  5. 4 elements found in the human body
    oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen
  6. goiter
    an iodine deficiency in the diet that causes the thyroid gland to grow to an abnormal size.

    *caused when u dont ingest enough idodine
  7. atom
    smallest unit of measure that still retains the properties of an element
  8. 3 subatomic particles found in an atom
    proton, electron, nuetron
  9. electron
    a subatomic particle with a single negative charge 

    (-)
  10. proton
    a subatomic particle with a single positive electrical charge (+)

    *found inside the nucleus, central core
  11. nuetrons
    electrically nuetral has no charge
  12. atomic number
    • the number of protons 
    •  (top number)
  13. mass number
    sum of the # of protons and neutrons in its nucleus

    (big, bottom number)
  14. isotope
    one element that has the same number of protons and behave identically in chemical reactions but have different number of neutrons 
  15. how to get # of neutrons
    atomic mass - atomic # = # of neutrons
  16. structure of an atom
    • 1st shell - 2 e- (max)
    • 2nd shell - 8 e- (max)
    • 3rd and above - up to 18 e-
  17. ionic bonding
    • electrons get transfered
    • metal to a nonmetal 
    • forms ions 
    • ex. salt
  18. ions
    an element with a charge
  19. covalent bonding
    • electrons get shared
    • nonmetal with a nonmetal
    • ex. methane gas
  20. polar covalent
    forms when 2 atoms share their e- unequally ex. h2o creates a slightly positive side and negative side
  21. nonpolar covalent
    forms when 2 atoms share their e- equally ex. methane or hydrogen gas
  22. hydrogen bonds
    • the attraction with a Hydrogen atom w/ a positive charge and another atom with a negative charge 
    • the polarity of water allows for hydrogen bonding

    •   O-
    •  /  \+ 
    •       O- 
    •    +/ \
    •          O-
    •         /  \+
  23. properties of water
    • universal solvent
    • expands
    • high specific heat
    • cohesian
    • adhesion
  24. universal solvent
    • water is the universal solvent
    • ions and polar molecules dissolve easily in water
    • when solute dissolves, water molecules cluster around its ions or molecules and keep them seperated
    • water transports molecules dissolved in it .

    ex. blood, a water based solution, transports molecules of nutrients and wastes in organisms
  25. expands
    water expands when it freezes
  26. why does ice float in water
    because its frozen and the colder it gets the less dense it gets
  27. high specific heat
    it takes alot of energy to change waters temp (due to h bonds breaking and reforming)

    • important because A large body of water can absorb and store a huge amount of heat from the sun in the daytime and during summer while warming up only a few degrees. And at night and during winter, the gradually cooling water can warm the air
    • The high specific heat of water also tends to stabilize ocean temperatures, creating a favorable environment for marine life.

    THus because of its high specific heat, the water that covers most of Earth keeps temperature fluctuations on land and in water within limits that permit life.
  28. cohesian
    • water sticking to itself
    • attraction between molecules of substance
    • produces surface tension in a measure of the force neccesary to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
    • ex. wax paper
  29. adhesion
    • water sticking to other substances
    • attraction between a molecules of different substance
    • ex. water on paper or glass
  30. mixture
    • 2 or more elements/compunds physically combines 
    • (salt & pepper )
  31. types of mixtures
    • solution 
    • solute 
    • solvent
    • suspension
  32. solution
    components are evenly distributed
  33. solute
    substance that is dissolved
  34. solvent
    substance in which  the solute is dissolved
  35. koolaid (what kind of mixture ) sss
    solution
  36. koolaid mix (what kind of mixture ) sss
    solute
  37. water (what kind of mixture ) sss
    solvent
  38. suspension
    mixture of water with dissolved material
  39. hydrophilic substances
    • water loving
    • polar
    • hydrogen bond with water
    • ex glucose (sugar)
  40. hydrophobic
    • water fearing
    • nonpolar
    • repelled by water (no hydrogen bonds can form)
    • ex. oil
  41. the ph scale
    • tells us how acidic or basic a substance is
    • 0-14
    • 0 to 6 = acidic
    • 7= neutral 
    • 8 to 14 = basic
    • scale measures h+ concentration of fluid 
    • (the more h+ the more acidic)
  42. acids
    ex . stomach acids, urine, hydrchloric acid, coffee, soda
  43. bases
    ex. intestinal fluid, blood, magnesium hydroxide, bleach, salt water
  44. buffers
    weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sudden changes in PH. this is done by donating or accepting a h+ ion to or from the solution
  45. carbonnic acid
    • bicarbonate buffer system
    • when blood ph rises the carbonic acid dissasosiates to from bisarbonate and h+

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