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Hierarchy of cellular organization
- Cell division and growth: from a fertilized egg
- Cell differentiation into specialized cell types
- Specialized cell types: Epithelial cell, Connective tissue cell, Neuron, and Muscle cell
- Tissues comprised of specialized cell types: Epithelial tissue, Connective tissue, Nervous tissue, and Muscle tissue
Generic cell anatomy, what comprises the cell?
- Plasma membrane
- Rough endoplasmic reticulum
- Ribosomes free and bound to the rough ER
- Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
- Nuclear pore
- Nuclear envelope
- Secretory vesicle
- Golgi apparatus
Function of membranes include:
- A selective barrier to the passage of molecules
- Detecting chemical signals from other cells (though membrane proteins)
- Anchoring cells to adjacent cells and to the extracellular matrix of connective-tissue proteins (though membrane associated proteins)
Membrane structure, what is it composed of?
- Phospholipid bilayer (fatty acids and polar regions)
What is the cytoskeleton and what processes is it associated with?
The cytoskeleton is a filamentous network that is associated with processes that maintain and change cell shape and produce cell movements.
Molecular constituents of cells
- Carbohydrates: monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides
- Lipids: fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, and steroids
- Proteins: amino acid subunits and polypeptides
- Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA
What are lipids mainly composed of? (on a molecular level)
hydrogen and carbon atoms
Why do lipids have low solubility in water?
The carbon and hydrogen atoms are linked by nonpolar covalent bonds --> lipids are nonpolar --> hydrophobic
Three reasons that lipids are important in physiology?
- Some provide a valuable source of energy
- Some are a major component of all cellular membranes
- Some are important signaling molecules
What percentage of the organic material in the body do proteins account for?
50% - 17% of the body weight
What are proteins composed of?
- Sulfur (small amounts)