Lecture 1 - Cells

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Lecture 1 - Cells
2015-09-13 17:33:29
BME 419
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  1. Hierarchy of cellular organization
    • Cell division and growth: from a fertilized egg
    • Cell differentiation into specialized cell types
    • Specialized cell types: Epithelial cell, Connective tissue cell, Neuron, and Muscle cell
    • Tissues comprised of specialized cell types: Epithelial tissue, Connective tissue, Nervous tissue, and Muscle tissue
  2. Generic cell anatomy, what comprises the cell?
    • Plasma membrane
    • Rough endoplasmic reticulum
    • Ribosomes free and bound to the rough ER
    • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    • Mitochondrion
    • Microfilaments
    • Microtubule
    • Nucleus
    • Nucleolus
    • Nuclear pore
    • Nuclear envelope
    • Vault
    • Peroxisome
    • Secretory vesicle
    • Lysosome
    • Centrioles
    • Endosome
    • Golgi apparatus
  3. Function of membranes include:
    • A selective barrier to the passage of molecules
    • Detecting chemical signals from other cells (though membrane proteins)
    • Anchoring cells to adjacent cells and to the extracellular matrix of connective-tissue proteins (though membrane associated proteins)
  4. Membrane structure, what is it composed of?
    • Proteins
    • Phospholipid bilayer (fatty acids and polar regions)
  5. What is the cytoskeleton and what processes is it associated with?
    The cytoskeleton is a filamentous network that is associated with processes that maintain and change cell shape and produce cell movements.
  6. Molecular constituents of cells
    • Carbohydrates: monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides
    • Lipids: fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, and steroids
    • Proteins: amino acid subunits and polypeptides
    • Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA
  7. What are lipids mainly composed of? (on a molecular level)
    hydrogen and carbon atoms
  8. Why do lipids have low solubility in water?
    The carbon and hydrogen atoms are linked by nonpolar covalent bonds --> lipids are nonpolar --> hydrophobic
  9. Three reasons that lipids are important in physiology?
    • Some provide a valuable source of energy
    • Some are a major component of all cellular membranes
    • Some are important signaling molecules
  10. What percentage of the organic material in the body do proteins account for?
    50% - 17% of the body weight
  11. What are proteins composed of?
    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Nitrogen
    • Sulfur (small amounts)