Lecture 1 - Cells
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Lecture 1 - Cells
Hierarchy of cellular organization
Cell division and growth
: from a fertilized egg
Cell differentiation into specialized cell types
Specialized cell types
: Epithelial cell, Connective tissue cell, Neuron, and Muscle cell
Tissues comprised of specialized cell types
: Epithelial tissue, Connective tissue, Nervous tissue, and Muscle tissue
Generic cell anatomy, what comprises the cell?
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Ribosomes free and bound to the rough ER
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Function of membranes include:
A selective barrier to the passage of molecules
Detecting chemical signals from other cells (though membrane proteins)
Anchoring cells to adjacent cells and to the extracellular matrix of connective-tissue proteins (though membrane associated proteins)
Membrane structure, what is it composed of?
Phospholipid bilayer (fatty acids and polar regions)
What is the cytoskeleton and what processes is it associated with?
The cytoskeleton is a filamentous network that is associated with processes that maintain and change cell shape and produce cell movements.
Molecular constituents of cells
: monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides
: fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, and steroids
: amino acid subunits and polypeptides
: DNA and RNA
What are lipids mainly composed of? (on a molecular level)
hydrogen and carbon atoms
Why do lipids have low solubility in water?
The carbon and hydrogen atoms are linked by nonpolar covalent bonds --> lipids are nonpolar --> hydrophobic
Three reasons that lipids are important in physiology?
Some provide a valuable source of energy
Some are a major component of all cellular membranes
Some are important signaling molecules
What percentage of the organic material in the body do proteins account for?
50% - 17% of the body weight
What are proteins composed of?
Sulfur (small amounts)