East Asian Studies
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East Asia countries of focus
- China - great tradition and influence on other countries
When was communism at its peak in China
When was early human migration to east asia?
- during 2nd wave of migration
- about 38,000 - 25,000 ya AMH settled in Asia
Explain the process of early human migration to Asia:
- Anatomically modern humans, homo sapiens sapiens, lived about 180,000 yrs
- About 200,000 ya originated in Africa
- AMH started migrating out of Africa about 100,000-80,000 ya
1st wave: AMH migrated to southeast Asia about ______ and migrated down towards _____ Then to _____
- 60,000 ya
- East Asia
did AMH migrate south or north?
- they were probably looking for a warmer place
- they went south towards Australia
- then to East Asia
2nd wave migration:
came to east asia around 38,000 - 25,000 ya and established East Asia
East Asia natural environment characteristics?
- generally moist
- Weather yields high productivity of agricultural land
- which brings a source of wealth for Chinese civilization
How is East Asia natural environment a source of wealth for civilization
- more agricultural productivity leads to:
- more Surplus
- Sedentary Settlement
- occupational specialization
- Advanced technology
- class divisions
- elite class emergence
- established government
- rights & duties
- large scale civilization
until only _____ ya people were hunter gatherers
What is East Asian Attitude toward nature?
- due to long growing seasons and adequate amount of rain they are:
- generous and benevolent
- Nature is not the enemy
- Humans are a lesser part of creation
- humans do not dominate nature
- It is vital to listen and adjust to nature
East Asian Subsistence strategy
food agriculture and cultivation
when did food domestication begin in East Asia?
Northern China Subsistence:
- Relatively dry area
- grow Millet, soybean, buckwheat, barley
East Asia is famous for what food?
Significance of Yangzi River
- rice domestication started
- produce high yields
- leads to high population densities
- it spread to all of asia through the mixing of hunting and gathering
What made it easier for hunter gatherers to be invaded?
- rise of technology advances
- introduction of diseases due to animal domestication
- increase social structure
Types of animals used for cultivation?
- most effective draft animals is Water buffaloes used for wet areas (plough fields and manure for the field) pack animals such as Oxen, cows, horses, mules used for dryer areas
- Sheeps & goats not a good agricultural fit – likely to eat crops
- Ducks, pigs, chicken- eat excess rubbish from plant and stuff
Coastal Area subsistance strategy
Rice harvesting process:
- polished (b vitamins obtained from rice germ)
where do asians get other source of vitamin B?
fermented beans and vegetables
Rice agriculture characteristics
- started in warm tropical climate in China
- then went to Korea (around 450 B.C or earlier) eventually went to Japan
- very productive food with high yield, but very Demanding labor
Rice agriculture process
- Prepare soil with animal
- Place seed in prepared beds
- Transplant in flooded fields
- control water level
- Weeded and fertilized crop
Rice agriculture production cycle
- increase production to feed more people and more people can put into production
- cycle continued until the 19th century
- then the cycle could not be kept due to carrying capacity
what is carrying capacity
- number of people who are supported by the given level of technology
- essentially there are more people than the carrying capacity, which means more people will be starve and die because productivity goes down due to having feed more people and use the land more
Why was japan fortunate to not exceed carrying capacity
- while China and Korea suffered and had drastic reduction in productivity
- Japan moved from agriculture to industrial society and did not suffer from carrying capacity effects
Aspects of life that food production influences:
- Larger family is a sign of wealth ( more children can help with labor)
- More organized form of government
- There is a need for joint efforts to get more food = primacy for group(more common for extended family members to live together)
- More people is more chances for conflict, therefore rules are needed to work harmoniously because of large family
- People need to adopt a holistic perspective when working together to understand all aspects of their society and culture
What type of society does East Asia and China have?
- majority patrilocal & patrilineal
- traditionally in China the Sons will live together
family continues through fathers side of the family
wife moves to husbands location
what is Japanese family lineage style?
- Stem family
- eldest son inherits most family material and prestige
- 2nd or 3rd son establishes their own household, which is neolocal
- if 1st son dies the next son in line will take over
Individuals are members of a group such as a family rather than just as an individual
- confucius influence
- adopt holistic perspective
- work collectively
- may sacrifice personal interest Feelings of accomplishment = group success
- Group provides help so it is not just an individual labor
- group shares glory or benefit earned by individuals
- to prevent chaos and ensure harmony rules are needed
- To keep social harmony it may be necessary to suppress yourself
- accepts hierarchical order
- needs to have clear understanding of individual status and role
- Entire group is affected by individual actions
- Scholars think this is why East Asian countries are submissive and obedient because if something goes wrong the entire group would be blamed Deterrent to crime or deviant behavior
Type of ideological practice in East Asian Countries?
What is Confucianism?
means that the group is tied together
- Established around 11th b.c During the shang dynasty
- zhou dynasty replaced the shang dynasty
- Zhou king gave local laws full authority over their land and people
- They are supposed to be loyal to the Zhou king
- By 8th b.c Vassal lords started having more power and behaved as if they had their own land
- By 5th – 3rd b.c independent states were established and started fighting against each other, feudal ideology broke down and life got disturbed by civil war
- Feudal customary ways broke down and so they needed to: Stop the war and have New social order
- Many schools of thoughts established after this Confucius
- Lived a very long time (c. 551 – c. 479 b.c)
- He tried to obtain new social order and stop the war
- He established a new socio-political system by obtaining new social order, but retaining old rituals and formalities
- was not appreciated when he was alive
When was Confucius ideology adopted?
- Around 100 b.c
- 400 years after his death China adopted his orthodox philosophy
What kind of things did Confucius want to emphasize?
- importance of balance and groupism between leaders and commoners
- importance of individual virtue
What did Confucius mean by individual Virtue?
- Everyone could became a leader
- Must discipline and internalize moral self
- Each person should have self discipline – self cultivation
- This is the first step towards social harmony Everyone is born with the seed of virtue
- Failure of self internalization is a cause for breakdown
What did Confucius believe leaders should have/do?
- authority, responsibility, Power, justice, Control and welfare over the people
- should have moral responsibility: benevolence, responsible, compassionate
- set good examples: be sensitive and promote social harmony so that eventually his examples brush off on commoners
What are the greatest social goals of confucianism?
Order and harmony
Vital themes and important concepts
- Humanness = benevolent, compassionate, and warmth for other people
- Righteousness or justice: ability to understand what is right; a moral sense Propriety or politeness: an inner sense of what is proper
- Loyalty to group, spouse, family, self, ruler or the ruled
- Filial piety: virtue of respect to parents, elders, or ancestors
How do these themes differ from western culture?
- Western culture revolves around a government structure and that sometimes what is necessary is not always good for the group
- Justice is seen through different lens and usually by those of higher political status
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